Samstag, 31. März 2012

Quäker der Woche (14): James Nayler


Neben George Fox (1624-1691), William Penn (1644-1718) und Robert Barclay (1648-1690) zählt James Nayler zu den bedeutendsten Quäkern der ersten Generation.
source: wikimedia
Nayler: für viele der Skandal-Quäker aller Zeiten, für Historiker eine ernstzunehmende Gestalt.


Geboren wurde er ...
um das Jahr 1617 in West Ardsley (Wakefield in Yorkshire, England), wo er von seinen Eltern einen Hof übernahm und als Freibauer arbeitete. In Woodchurch bei West Ardsley war er zunächst Mitglied der unabhängigen kongregationalen Kirche von England. In der Parlamentsarmee, der New-Modell-Army des Lordprotektors Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), diente er von 1642 bis 1651 als Regimentssoldat unter Fairfax (Infanterie) und anschließend als Quartiermeister und Offizier unter dem Generalmayor Lambert (Kavallerie). Er nahm an der Schlacht von Dunbar 1650 teil. In diesen neun Jahren entfremdete sich Nayler mehr und mehr von den politischen Geschehnissen seiner Zeit und reichte schließlich, enttäuscht und körperlich erschöpft, seinen Abschied ein. Zunächst kehrte er zu seiner Frau Anne, die er 1639 geheiratet hatte, und zu seinen fünf Kindern zurück. Zeit seines Lebens war ihm seine Familie ein Ort des Rückzuges und des Verständnisses, wenn ihn auch seine Predigttätigkeit immer wieder in die Welt hinaustrieb. Seine Enttäuschung über die vertanen sozialen und religiösen Chancen der Revolution legte er in seiner Schrift „To Those Who Were in Authority“ (1660) nieder. Während der Jahre in der Armee verkehrte er in radikalreligiösen Kreisen; so stand er den Levellers nahe. Bald hatte er in der Armee begonnen, den Soldaten zu predigen. Auch mit Richard Farnworth (gest. 1666), einem radikalen Seeker, stand er in Verbindung. Ab 1651 wurde er nach einer Begegnung mit George Fox zum Anhänger der Quäkerbewegung. Das Verhältnis zu Fox war jedoch stets gespannt, eine Freundschaft zwischen diesen beiden starken Persönlichkeiten ist niemals zustande gekommen. Mehrmals hatte es Nayler versucht, den Kontakt zu Fox aufzunehmen und ihr gegenseitiges Verhältnis zu verbessern. Vermutlich waren Fox Naylers Chiliasmus, seine Melancholie und seine Weltabgewandtheit zeitlebens fremd geblieben. Naylers neuer Glaube und seine verstärkte Predigtaktivität führten zur Exkommunikation aus der unabhängigen kongregationalen Kirche. Er gründete daraufhin die erste Quäkerversammlung in der Grafschaft Durham. Wegen angeblicher „Gotteslästerung“ wurde er von November 1652 bis März 1653 erstmals ins Gefängnis gesetzt. Er verbrachte diese Zeit zusammen mit Francis Howgill (1618-1669), einem weiteren bedeutenden Quäker. Anschließend wurde er nach London gerufen, um die dortigen Quäkerprediger Edward Burrough (1634-1663) und Francis Howgill zu unterstützen. Hier soll er mit Familiaristen zusammengetroffen sein, die seine Ansichten zu radikalisieren vermochten. Einfachheit, Besitzlosigkeit und Wahrhaftigkeit wurden zu Anliegen seiner Londoner Jahre, die er auch in die Häuser von Adligen brachte, zu denen er Zugang hatte. Selbst mit Cromwell war er 1655 zusammengekommen. 1656 wurde er wegen Blasphemie erneut verurteilt und verbrachte fast die gesamten letzten Jahre vor seinem Tod in Gefangenschaft. 1660 war er nach seiner Entlassung auf dem Weg von London zu seiner Frau und seinen Kindern in Wakefield unterwegs, als er von Wegelagerern in Holme (Huntingdonshire) überfallen und misshandelt wurde. Gefesselt und schwer verletzt wurde er in einem Straßengraben aufgefunden. Trotz sorgsamster Pflege konnte Nayler nicht mehr genesen und starb im Hause eines Freundes. Er wurde in King’s Repton (Ripton) am 21. Oktober 1660 auf einem Quäkerfriedhof bestattet.
Am bekanntesten aus dem Leben Naylers sind die Ereignisse um einen spektakulären Einzug in die Stadt Bristol. An einem verregneten Oktobertag – dem 24. Oktober 1656 – befand sich Nayler auf einer Reise von Exeter nach Bristol. Er war kürzlich aus der Gefangenschaft entlassen worden, in welcher er Briefe und Besuche erhalten hatte, die geeignet waren, in ihm das Bild einer besonderen Erwähltheit entstehen zu lassen. Die Schreiben sind durchzogen von endzeitlicher Erwartung und chiliastischem Vokabular. Der Quäkerin Martha Simmonds (1624-1665) wurde nachgesagt, in einem besonders innigen und vertrauensvollen Verhältnis zu Nayler gestanden zu haben. Sie war es auch, die am Tag des Einzuges an seiner Seite einherlief. Nayler selbst saß auf einem Pferd, mit ihnen zog noch eine kleine Schar weiterer Quäker, nämlich: Hannah Stranger, John Stranger, Dorkas Erbery, Samuel Cater (gest. 1711), Robert Crab und Timothy Wedlock. Die auf vielen tendenziösen Abbildungen zu sehenden Personen, meist Frauen, die „Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord God of Israel“ und ähnliches gesungen haben, stießen erst kurz vor dem Erreichen der Stadt am Redcliff Gate hinzu. Einige legten ihre Kleider teilweise ab, um sie vor dem Reiter auf die Bahn zu legen. Dies geschah keineswegs zur Erleichterung des Reitens auf dem völlig versumpften Feldweg, sondern in Nachspielung derjenigen Ehrerbietungen gegenüber Christus, von denen alle Evangelien, außer dem des Johannes, berichten. Es handelte sich um eine in das äußere Geschehen verlagerte Form der Imitatio Christi. Nach dem Einzug kehrte Nayler und seine Gefolgschaft in das Haus eines Freundes ein. Doch schon nach wenigen Stunden wurde er von der städtischen Miliz verhaftet und in das Gefängnis gebracht. Die Stadtbehörde von Bristol war jedoch mit der Angelegenheit überfordert und wies den Fall Nayler an das Parlament von England weiter. Dort kam es zu einem aufsehenerregenden Prozess. Auf die Frage, ob er Gottes Sohn sei, bejahte er dies, verwies jedoch darauf, dass er viele weitere Brüder habe. Die ihm erzeigten Ehrerbietungen wie das Küssen, die Titulaturen oder das Niederknien habe er gerade nicht auf seine eigene Person, sondern auf die des Christus bezogen. Die Schwierigkeit lag allerdings darin, dass Nayler unter Christus den „inneren Christus“ in seinem Inneren verstand. Hauptanklagepunkt waren, das Gottesreich auf Erden verwirklichen zu wollen. Physische Gewalt spielte bei diesem Ereignis eine geringe Rolle, die Diskussion um die „Blasphemie“ im Verhalten Naylers entzündete sich hauptsächlich an der Frage der Rechtmäßigkeit der Aneignung von Herrschaftsattributen, wobei die alleinige Kritik an der Obrigkeit von den Richtern bereits als gewaltsamer Akt gewertet wurde. Weder eine Intervention Cromwells noch die Bemühungen Lamberts konnten die Verurteilung verhindern oder aussetzen. So wurden die Strafen an ihm öffentlich vollzogen: Im Dezember 1656 musste er zwei Stunden an einem Schandpfahl stehen. Dann wurde er mit einer Geißel 310 Mal geschlagen, bis die gesamte Haut seines Rückens weggepeitscht worden war. Nach neun weiteren Tagen wurde er wieder an den Pfahl gebunden. Man durchbohrte seine Zunge mit einem glühenden Nagel und brannte in seine Stirn den Buchstaben „B“ (dieser sollte die angebliche Blasphemie öffentlich kenntlich machen). Drei Wochen darauf musste er rücklings auf einem Esel die Strecke vom Bristoler Marktplatz bis vor die Stadt reiten und wurde erneut ausgepeitscht. Anschließend wurde er zur Zwangsarbeit in das Londoner Gefängnis Bridewell eingewiesen.
Bis 1657 versank er während der Gefangenschaft in tiefste Melancholie. Doch dann gewann er neue Kraft und Zuversicht, die äußeren Drangsale durch innere Disziplin und spirituelles Wachstum überwindend. Im Gefängnis verfasste er einige seiner reifsten und erschütterndsten Erbauungsschriften, wie „A Message from the Spirit of Truth“ oder „How Sin is Strengthened“ (beide 1658). Er beschäftigte sich darin eingehend mit Hochmut und Demut, Weltabgewandtheit und Weltzugewandtheit, Selbstverwirklichung und Selbstverleugnung. Nur wenige seiner Freunde standen ihm in dieser schweren Zeit bei. Die überwiegende Zahl leistete dem Beispiel von George Fox Folge, der sich von Nayler öffentlich distanziert hatte. Naylers Schriften wurden zeitweise selbst unter Quäkern abgelehnt und vernichtet. Lediglich von seiner Frau wurde er besucht, was ihm viel Trost und Hoffnung gab. Von den Strafen hat sich Nayler niemals vollständig erholt, körperlich litt er bis zu seinem Tod an den Folgen der Misshandlungen. Nachdem das Parlament den Sohn des enthaupteten Königs als Charles II. (1630-1685) auf den Thron berief, wurde Nayler am 8. Oktober 1659 aus der Gefangenschaft entlassen. Innerlich gereift und gewachsen zeigte er sich gegenüber Fox voller Demut, indem er sich vor diesem niederwarf und ihm die Füße küsste, was Fox als Zeichen der „Buße“ verlangt hatte. Nayler konnte sich dazu überwinden, da er sich selbst und die Welt überwunden hatte. Erst nach dieser Buße wurde Nayler wieder in die Quäkergemeinschaft aufgenommen. Schnell gelang es ihm, wieder zu einem der überzeugenden Prediger zu werden. 
Die Bedeutung Naylers liegt in seinen theologischen Schriften und in dem Zeugnis, das er als einer der ersten Quäker ablegte. Als einfacher Wanderprediger zog er von Ort zu Ort, von seinen Anhängern zutiefst verehrt, von seinen Gegnern erbittert verfolgt und verachtet. So waren die Jahre 1653 und 1654 ganz mit Reisen durch den Norden Englands ausgefüllt, wo er vornehmlich in Disputen mit Priestern seine Betrachtungen und religiöse Erfahrungen vortrug. Er zählt zu den bedeutendsten und wortgewaltigsten Predigern unter den Quäkern im 17. Jahrhundert. So wurde William Edmondson (1627-1712) nach einer bewegenden Rede Naylers zum Quäker. Anthony Pearson (1628-1666), der Stadtrat von Appleby, wurde dagegen durch die Haltung Naylers während seiner ersten Gefangenschaft zum Quäker. Robert Rich (1587-1658), einer der entschiedensten Enthusiasten der Zeit, wurde zeitweise zum Anhänger Naylers, weil er sich mit seinen undogmatischen und unkonventionellen Ansichten von diesem verstanden glaubte. Im persönlichen Umgang war Nayler freundlich, aufmerksam und hilfsbereit, doch in religiösen Angelegenheiten ließ er sich auf keine Halbheiten und Zugeständnisse ein. Im Gegensatz zu Fox war er in der Verurteilung seiner Gegner jedoch weitaus vorsichtiger. Er suchte zunächst das Gespräch und wollte seine Kontrahenten auch kennen und verstehen lernen. Er besaß eine ausgezeichnete Bibelkenntnis, so dass er vor studierten Theologen seine Ansichten glaubwürdig vertreten konnte und viele von diesen zum Nachdenken brachte. Scharf wendete er sich gegen die hohle Gelehrsamkeit vieler seiner Zeitgenossen. Sein Anliegen war nicht das philologische exegetische Schriftstudium, sondern ein Suchen nach den Quellen der biblischen Inspiration. Diese Quelle war für ihn Christus. Nur aus dieser Quelle gelang es ihm, religiöse Übungen wie das Fasten durchzuhalten und sich von seinem Besitz zu lösen. 
Nayler verfasste eine Vielzahl meist kurzer Traktate zu den allgemeinen Fragen, die in ihrer Bedeutung nicht auf das England des 17. Jahrhunderts begrenzt sind: Die Suche nach Gott, die richtige Lebensweise, die Unterscheidung zwischen Gut und Böse werden ebenso angesprochen wie die zentralen Anliegen Naylers: Wahrheit, Gewissenhaftigkeit und Führung im Geiste. Besonders ausgiebig beschäftigte ihn die mystische Lehre vom innere Licht, von dem er viel predigte und über die er eingehend meditierte. In der Schrift „The Light of Christ“ (1656) sind viele Ausführungen über das Innere Licht treffend zusammengefasst, so dass diese Schrift für das Quäkertum von großer Bedeutung werden konnte. Seine letzten Worte „There is a Spirit“, die er im Angesicht des Todes aussprach, zählen zu den tiefsten und bewegendsten Zeugnissen, die von Nayler überliefert sind: „There is a spirit that I feel, that delights to do no evil, nor to revenge any wrong, but delights to endure all things, in hope to enjoy its own in the end. Its hope is to outlive all wrath and contention, and to weary out all exaltation and cruelty, or whatsoever is of nature contrary to it self. It sees to the end of all temptations. As it bears no evil in it self, so it conceives none in thoughts to any other; for its ground and spring is the mercies and forgiveness of God. Its crown is meekness, its life is everlasting love unfeigned, and takes its kingdom with intreaty, and not with contention, and keeps it in lowliness of mind. In God alone it can rejoice, tho’ none else regard it, or can own its life. It’s conceiv’d in sorrow, and brought forth without any to pity it; nor doth it murmur at grief and oppression; it never rejoyceth but thro’ sufferings, for with the world’s joy it is murthered: I found it alone, being forsaken; I have fellowship therein with them that lived in dens and desolate places in the earth, who thro’ death obtained this resurrection and eternal holy life“ (Memoirs, 1719, 71).

Werke: A copy of a letter to some Friends concerning George Foxe’s tryal. Written from Kellet, October 27th, 1652. A brief discovery of a threefold estate of Antichrist now extant in the world. Viz: a description of 1. The true and false temple, 2. The false ministry, and 3. The false churches. Whereunto is added the trial of one George Fox in Lancashire, with his answer to eight articles exhibited against him. Being sent in a letter from Kellet to some Friends in York-shire. Also, certain queries upon a petition lately presented to the Parliament from divers gentlemen (...) in Worcestershire. O.O. 1653; Sinne kept out of the kingdome, written by James Nailer, late prisoner in Appleby castle, by the dark world, called a Quaker. O.O. um 1653; A lamentation (by one of England’s prophets), over the ruines of this oppressed nacion, to be deeply laid to heart by Parliament and army and all sorts of people, lest they be swept away with the bosom of destruction, in the day of the Lord’s fierce wrath and indignation, which is near at hand. Written by the movings of the Lord in James Nayler. And a warning to the rulers of England not to usurp dominion over the conscience, nor to give forth lawes contrary to that in the conscience. Written from the spirit of the Lord in George Fox. York 1653; The power and glory of the Lord, shining out of the north, or the day of the Lord dawning. Wherein the true light is holden forth to all who desire to walk in the day. With a warning to the people of England of all sorts not to oppose Christ in his kingdom, shewing also the way how all flesh comes to know the Lord and fear him by his terrible shaking the earthly part in man, witnessed by the holy men of God in Scripture, with a word to the serpents seed, or ministers of Antichrist, or man of sin wherever he is found. London 1653. London 16562; Several petitions answered, that were put up by the priests of Westmorland, against James Nayler and Geo. Fox, servants of the most high God, persecuted by the priests of the world, (...). London 1653; Nayler, James; Fox, George: Several papers. Some of them given forth by George Fox, others by James Nayler, ministers of the eternall world of God, raysed up after the long night of apostacy, to direct the world to wait for the revelation of Jesus Christ, and to turne their minds to the true light, that they may be reconciled to God, of whom the world is not worthy, and therefore doth hate, persecute, and imprison them, under the name of Quakers. Gathered together and published by A. P., that the truth may be spread abroad, and deceipt be discovered, (…). O.O. 1653; A discovery of the first wisdom from beneath, and the second wisdom from above. Or, the difference betwixt the two seeds, the one after the flesh, the other after the spirit. With the true worship of God after the spirit, and the false worship of the world, who lives in outward forms, useth customes and traditions, not knowing the only true God that dwelleth in his saints, and rules by his spirit of power, which causeth them to differ from the world, and those that have the form of godlinesse, and want the power thereof. Also the subtilty of the serpent ruling in the hearts of the children of disobedience, discovered. And a call to repentance to all that run on in blindness, darknesse, and ignorance, and the judgement that is due to all those that will not take counsell of the Lord, but turn the grace of God into wantonnesse. Written by a servant of the Lord, whom the world scornfully nicknameth, and calleth a Quaker, who is prisoner for the testimony of the truth at Applebie in Westmorland, whose name is James Nayler. London 1653. London 16562; A discovery of faith, wherein is laid down the ground of true faith, which sanctifieth and purifieth the heart, and worketh out the carnal part, shewing the way that leadeth to salvation. O.O. 1653; Saul's errand to Damascus, with his packet of letters from the high priests against the disciples of the Lord, or a faithful transcript of a petition contrived by some persons in Lancashire who call themselves ministers of the gospel, breathing out threatnings and slaughters against a peaceable and godly people there, by them nick-named Quakers. Together with the defence of the persons thereby traduced against, the slanderous and false suggestions of that petition, and other untruths charged upon them. Published to no other end but to draw out the bowels of tender compassion from all that love the poor despised servants of Jesus Christ, who have been the scorn of carnall men in all ages. London 1653. London 16542. London 16553; Several letters written to the saints of the most high to build them up in the truth as it is in Jesus. O.O. 1654; All vain janglers, imitatours, and licentious persons, shut out of the Scriptures who are not guided by the same spirit that gave them forth. The old serpents voice, or Antichrist discovered, opposing Christ in his kingdome. By one who desires the redemption of souls out of Sathan’s wiles. London 1654; Churches gathered against Christ and his kingdom, or, a petition answered, wherein is plainly shewed how the petitioners go about to take the kingdom, care of his servants, and propagating of his gospel out of the hand of Christ, and would put it into the hands of the powers of the earth, contrary to the words of Christ, and practice of all the saints in Scriptures. Also, a word that aboce all they meddle not in the kingdom of Christ (...). London 1654; Truth cleared from scandals, and with the condition and portion of the people of England (…). O.O. 1654; An epistle to several Friends about Wakefield. O.O. 1654; To all dear brethren and Friends in Holderness, and in the east parts of Yorkshire. O.O. 1654; A discovery of the man of sin, acting in a mystery of iniquitie, pleading for his kingdom, against the coming of Christ to take away sin. Or, an answer to a book set forth by Tho. Weld, of Gateshead, Richard Prideaux, Sam. Hamond, Will. Cole, and Will. Durant, of Newcastle. By way of reply to an answer of James Nayler's to their former book, called, „The Perfect Pharisee“, who call themselves ministers of Christ, but are found ministring for the kingdom of Antichrist. By one whom the world calls James Nayler. London 1654. London 16552; Nayler, James; Fox, George: A word from the Lord, unto all the faithlesse generation of the world, who know not the truth, but live in their own imaginations, with a true declaration of the true faith, and in what it doth differ from the world’s imagination. Written in obedience to the Lord, that all may see what faith is owned by the saints, and what faith is denied. And also a few words unto all professors of the world, who worship not the true God, but their own imaginations and conceivings instead of the true God. Also a call from God unto all the world to repentance, that all may turn unto him, lest the Lord destroy both root and branch of them that repent not. Also a few words unto you that scorne quaking and trembling, which all the holy men of God witnessed that spoke forth the Scripture, and also the holy men of God justified, and all you denied that scorneth such as witness of such things now, as ever was in all the generations of the saints. With a word to those that are called Anabaptists, Independents, Presbyterians, Levellers, and Ranters, that they may turne to the Lord. London 1654; A word from the Lord to all the world, and all professors in the world, spoken in parables. Wherein all may come to read themselves (...) also a word to all professors, who cast the pure law of God behind their backs, and turn the grace of God into wantonness (...) by them who are redeemed out of the curse, to serve the living, called Quakers. London 1654; A second answer to Thomas Moore, to that which he calls his defence against the poyson, &c. Wherein is shewed the crooked wayes, the serpent is forced to take to keep God and his creatures at a distance, and yet would do it under the name of a teacher. London 1654. London 16552; A dispute between James Nayler and the parish teachers of Chesterfield, by a challenge against him. With several passages by letters, occasioned by a bull-bayting. Wherein the simple may see the bloody intents of those men under fair colour, when they speak of peace, war is in their hearts. London 1655; The royall law and convenant of God, what, and where it is, and who are in it, and who are reprobate to the faith. London 1655; The secret shooting of the wicked, reproved, or a word to the nameless publisher of that he calls, „Strength in Weakness“. O.O. 1655; Satan’s design discovered, who under a pretence of worshipping Christ's person in heaven, would exclude God and Christ, the spirit and light, out of the world. Clearly laid open in an answer to Thomas Moor, who calls his book an antidote against the spreading infections (...). Also some particulars, what the Quakers holds concerning the presence of God (…). London 1655; Something further in answer to John Jackson’s book, called „Strength in Weakness“ - with a few words in answer to a printed paper subscribed F. B. London 1655; Nayler, James; Farnsworth, Richard; Fox, George: To you that are called by the name of Baptists, or the baptized people, (…). O.O. um 1655; Spiritual wickednesse in heavenly places, proclayming freedome to the forme, but persecuting the power, or an answer to a book, intituled „Freedom of Religion Worship or, the Jubilee of Ordinances“, set forth without a name. O.O. um 1655; A salutation to the seed of God, and a call out of Babylon and Egypt, from amongst the Magitians, where the house of bondage is, and the imaginations rules above the seed of God, the cause of all blindnes and condemnation (...). Also a suite to such rulers, magistrates, and governours, as have not wholly hardened their hearts. London 1655. London 16552. London 16563. London 16564. London 16655; An answer to the booke called, „The Perfect Pharisee under Monkish Holinesse“, wherein is layd open, who they are that oppose the fundamentall principles of the doctrine of the gospel, and the Scripture practises, which the authors of that book would cast upon those they call Quakers, but are found to be themselves, who appear to be no ministers of the gospel, but walke contrary to all that ever Christ sent forth in the Scripture, scorning them who live the life of the Scriptures, or are brought into the obedience of the same spirit. Published for no other end but to cleare the truth from the slanders of these men, who thereby goe about to deceive the simple, and keep them off from obedience to the truth. By one whom the world calls, James Naylor. London um 1655; A true discoverie of faith, and a brief manifestation of the ground upon which we stand, to those who desire to know it. With a declaration why we cannot repair the idolls temples, nor pay wages to a clerk. Also an answer to severall queries put forth by one John Reyner. London 1655; Nayler, James; Fox, George: To thee, Oliver Cromwell, into whose hands God hath committed the sword of justice, that under thee, all may be godly and quietly governed. London 1655; A discovery of the beast, got into the seat of the false prophet, who hath opened his mouth in blasphemy, to deny the Father, and the Son, and the Spirit, or ought in man above nature, to guide man out of his natural estate, that so he might establish his beastly kingdome. Or, an answer to a paper set out by T. Winterton, wherein he would prove something against the Quakers if he could, but hath gone so far as he hath proved himself an atheist, without God, or the sure foundation, yet in his busie corrupt carnal senses would be a teacher, whereof all that loves the Lord are hereby warned, in love to your soules. By a witnesse to the true light in spirit, called James Nayler. London 1655. London 16562; The boaster bared and his armour put off, without a conquest, by the quaking principle. In an answer to Enoch Howet’s, called „Quaking Principles Dasht in Pieces“. London 1655; The railer rebuked, in a reply to a paper subscribed Ellis Bradshaw, who calls it „The Quaker's Whitest Devil Unvailed“, but hath discovered a dark devil in himself, as in his paper appears, replied by him who is called James Nailer. London 1655; A foole answere’d according to his folly, or, Judas in joyning to the chiefe priests, to betray the Lamb, hath hang'd himselfe, plainly seen in answer to George Emmot, of Durham, and his northern blast. Wherein is clearly discovered a design of the envious generation of romish priests and unclean people, to render the truth odious under the name of popery, (…). London 1655; An answer to twenty-eight queries sent out by Francis Harris to those people he calls Quakers, wherein his spirit is tryed, to be contrary to that spirit that was in all the children of light, by his own words and infallible proof, his slanders being removed, his queries are groundless, and so the truth cleared, in the sight of the least of the Lord’s people. Written in the defence of the truth, and for the freeing the Israelite out of the hand of the Aegyptian. London 1655; An answer to a book called, „The Quaker’s Catechism“, put out by Richard Baxter, wherein the slanderer is searched, his questions answered, and his deceit discovered, whereby the simple have been deceived, and the popery proved in his own bosom, which he would cast upon the Quakers. Published for the sake of all who desire to come out of Babylon, to the foundation of the true prophets, and apostles, where Christ Jesus is the light and corner stone, where God is building a habitation of righteousness and everlasting peace, where the children of light do rest. Also some queries for the discovering the false grounds of the literal priest-hood of these days, in the last times of Antichrist. If you know the truth, the truth shall make you free. London 1655. London 16562; Weaknes above wickednes, and truth above subtilty, which is the Quaker's defence against the boaster and his deceitfull slanders. Clearly seen in an answer to a book called, „Quakers Quaking“, devised by Jeremiah Ive's against the dispised contemptible people trampled on by the world, and scorned by the scorners. In which the deceits are turned into the deceivers bosome, and the truth cleared from the accuser. In much plainnesse, that the simple may see and perceive, and come to be gathered to the Lamb, from amongst the armies of the wicked, who have now set themselves against the Lord, and sees it not. Also some queries to Jeremy Ive's touching his false doctrine and deceits. London 1656; A vindication of truth, as held forth in a book, entituled, „Love to the Lost“, from the lies, slanders and deceits of T. Higgenson, in a book, called, „A Testimony to the True Jesus“ then what the scriptures hold forth, or the saints witness. London 1656; Nayler, James; Simmonds, Martha; Stranger, Hannah; Tomlinson, William: O England thy time is come. God hath not taken thee until thou be ful, the fulness of thy time is come (...). O.O. um 1656; An answer to some queries put out by one John Pendarves, in a book, called „Arrowes against Babylon (…)“. For the people called Quakers to answer. London 1656; Wickedness weighed, in an answer to a book, called, „The Quakers Quaking Principle, Examined and Refuted“. Set forth by Ellis Bradshaw, and dedicated, as he saith, to his highness the Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with the Dominions thereof, much boasted of by the author, but as little worth, as the boast is great (...). Here is also, some marks, and maintenance of the true ministers set down. By a friend to the work of God, but an enemy to the devil’s work, where it is found and pleaded for, called of the world James Naylor. London 1656; A publike discovery, of the open blindness of Babel’s builders, and their confused language, who have been building without, till they deny faith, knowledge, and the gospel-light within, the law of the new covenant and matter of the new creature. Plainly laid open in an answer to a book intituled, „A Publike Discovery of a Secret Deceipt“, subscribed John Deacon, in behalf of some who pretend a call to the ministry. By an enemy to deceit, but a friend to the creation, called James Naylor. London 1656; The light of Christ, and the word of life, cleared from the deceipts of the deceiver, and his litteral weapons turned upon his owne head. Also the man of sin found out, who is hiding himselfe in a heape of confusion, pretending Antichrist is not yet come. Occasioned by laying open some deceipts in a booke, titled, „The Deceived and Deceiving Quakers Discovered“, subscribed Matthew Caffin and William Jeffery, brethren in iniquitie, who are joyned to deny God, Christ, the light, and spirit, in his saints, and calls it teaching Christs spirit apart from his body, and an evill spirit, to witnesse the spirit of Christ in the saints. Set forth that the simple may see the wiles the devill hath to keepe them from the word of life, the soules salvation. London 1656; Antichrist in man, Christ's enemy, who hath been pretending for Christ in notion, but now at his appearance stands up with all his power to deny his light, and preach him unsufficient. Clearly discovered in an answer to a book titled, „Antichrist in Man the Quakers Idol“. Set forth by Joshua Miller, wherein he confesseth Antichrist to be in man, but denies the light of Christ within to be sufficient to reveal him, and to witness Christ to be the only means to salvation, he calls an error, if not damnable. With much more such confused stuffe, discovered for the sake of the simple who are led blind, with such blind guides, to their destruction, that such as will may beware and turn to the Lord, that with his Spirit of truth they may be guided into all truth, and out of this great deceit and enmity, wherein they are led and knows not. By a lover of the seed of God, and one that seeks the peace of lost souls, called James Naylor. London 1656; A few words occasioned by a paper lately printed, stiled, „A Discourse Concerning the Quakers“, together with a call to magistrates, ministers, lawyers, and people to repentance. Wherein all men may see, that the doctrine and life of those people whom the world scornefully calls Quakers, is the very doctrine and life of Christ. Written for the sake of the simple minded ones, who are willing to follow Christ under the crosse, and to deny all things to be his disciples. By a servant of the Lord, reproached by the world, and carnall worshippers, under the name of a Quaker, whose name in the flesh is Iames Naylor. London 1656; Foot yet in the snare, though the beast hath healed his wound, and now pretends liberty, but is fallen into the trap of the priests, receiving their testimony to beare it up, who are in the pit themselves, thereby giving them occasion to insult against the truth, as the beast and the false prophet hath alwaies joyned against the Lamb. Discovered in an answer to John Toldervy, Matthew Pool, William Jenkin, John Tombs, John Goodwin, William Adderley, George Cockayn, Thomas Jacomb, and Thomas Brooks, who under a pretence of love to the truth, have gone about to devour it, and cover it with reproach. Wherein their crooked wayes, (...) traced and laid open, and their spirit tryed to be the same which joyned Judas and the chief priests, (...) so those have joyned testimony to the truth, of a lying book, which by their own confession they never read over. With something of their false testimony is short laid open, lest simple minds should be led with a lye through the fame of the forgers. London 1656; Deceit brought to day-light, in an answer to Thomas Collier, what he hath declared in a book called, „A Dialogue between a Minister, and a Christian, but by his Fruits he is Tryed and Found to be neither“. In which answer his lies are returned for the founder to prove, his errors laid open, read, and reproved, and he found to be the same in deeds which he accuses the Quakers to be in words. Published in short for the souls sake, that the simplicity may be preserved from the subtilty, lest any should believe lies, and so be given up to delusion, and be damned. By a lover of truth, called, James Naylor. London 1656; Love to the lost, and a hand held forth to the helpless, to lead out of the dark. Wherein is plainly held out divers particular things as they are learned of Christ, and are most needful to be known of all, who profess godliness. Set forth chiefly for the directing the simple into the living way of truth, as it is in Jesus Christ, the righteous, that therein they may come to the life and power of that which the world hath in words, which being received, satisfies the weary soul, and makes the creature wel-pleased with his maker. Wherein there is also some reproofs to the dark world. By one that seeks the redemption of Sion's seed, and a lover of the creation of God, who is called James Naylor. London 1656. London 16562. London 16623. London 16654. London 16715; The Lamb’s warre against the man of sinne, the end of it, the manner of it, and what he wars against, his weapons, his colours, and his kingdom. And how all may know whether they be in it, or no, and whether the same Christ be in them, that is, was, and is to come, and their faithfulness or unfaithfulness to him. London 1657. London 16582; How sin is strengthened, and how it is overcome. London 1657. London 16582. London 16603. London 16644, London 16645, ND London 1724; A touchstone for the use of all professors, by which they may see how sin is being strengthened in them, and how it may be overcome. London 1657. London 18792; - Behold you rulers, and hearken proud men and woman, who have let in the spirit of the world into your hearts, whereby you are lifted up in the earth, hear what truth saith. London 1658. London 16602; Rabshakeh’s outrage reproved. Or, a whip for William Grigge of Bristoll, tanner, to scourge him, for his many notorious lies, blasphemies, reproaches, vain boastings, and other such like noysom matter, vomited out against the truth and its Friends, in a late fiery pamphlet, (published under his name) entituled, „The Quaker Jesus“. In which, he hath proclaimed his own shame, and infamy, as in many other particulars, so more especially, by his most abominable hypocrisie, in charging that as matter of crime upon the men of his indignation, of which he himself is herein-after, proved to stand guilty by his own practise. London 1658; A message from the spirit of truth unto the holy seed, who are chosen out of the world, and are lovers and followers of the light. London 1658; A few words in answer to the resolves of some who are called independent teachers, whose gospel and ministry appears to depend upon tythes, or as full a maintenance secured to them by a carnal law, as appears from their own mouths, in their judgements, and desires to the present rulers, delivered as followeth. London 1659; Glory to God almighty who ruleth in the heavens, and in whose hands are all the kingdoms of the earth, who raiseth up and casteth down at his will, who hath wayes to confound the exaltation of man, and to chastise his children, and to make man to know himself to be as grass before him, (…) London 1659; A psalm of thanksgiving to God for his mercies. O.O. 1659. London 17232; Recantation, penned, and directed by himself, to all the people of the Lord gathered and scattered. And may most fitly serve as antidote against the infectious poyson of damnable heresies, although couched under the most specious vails of pretended sanctity. London 1659; Having heard that some have wronged my words which I spoke before the committee of parliament, concerning Jesus Christ, and concerning the Old and New Testament, some have printed words which I spoke not, also, some have printed a paper, and calls it James Naylor’s recantation, unknown to me. To all of which things, I shall speak a few words, which may satisfie such as loves the truth, and that he who is out of the truth may proceed no further. London 1659; To all people of the Lord everywhere gathered or scathered. London 1659; A door opened to the imprisoned seed in the world, and the way of freedom, by the spirit of truth, sent out into the world in love to the sheep that have long been lost, which may serve any who simply seek the life of what they profess, and may shew the feigned and false in heart, the cause why they are shut out of truth’s power. Wherein the elect way is opened to the blind, with encouragements to enter and walk therein. Also the fruits of the free-born cleared from legal performances, and the children of bondage shewed the nature of their own works. Christ Jesus known to be king in his temples, through the power of the Holy Ghost, and sword of the spirit lifted up against the man of sin in true judgement. London 1659. London 16602. ND London 1667; Several papers of confessions, prayer and praise in a book which begins thus „Oh England, Thy Time is Come, God hath not Taken Thee until Thou be full“, yea, the fullness of thy time is come, with speed prepare to meet the Lord in judgment, least thou be cut off. Woe unto thee if he turn from thee before thou be refined, remember, was not the jews cut off that thou might be grafted in? Remember, and take heed. London 1659; What the possession of the living faith is, and the fruits thereof, and wherein it hath been found to differ from the dead faith of the world, in the learning and following of Christ in the regeneration. With an opening of light to all sorts of people that waits for the kingdom of God, and a candle lighted to give the sight of the good old way of God, from the wayes that now ensnares the simple. Written by James Naylor in the time of his imprisonment, and now published by a Friend. London 1659. London 16642. London 16763. London 18604; Give ear you gathered-churches, so called, in England and Ireland, and hear what truth saith of you concerning your dealing towards God, for the day hath discovered you. And God is coming to enquire for his own amongst you. London 1660; A letter written by James Naylor, to all the dearly beloved people of God, mercy and peace. London 1660; How the ground of temptation is in the heart of the creature. London 1662; To those who were in authority, whom the Lord is now judging, that may repent and find mercy from God. London 1660; Hubberthorne, Richard; Nayler, James: An account from the children of light (to them that askes) in several particulars, why we have been kept from joyning to, or worshipping in those formes at law, and formes of worships, that have been imposed upon us against our consciences, in these late years, for denying whereof, we have so deeply suffered with our lives, liberties and estates. Also what we owne as to those things and can be obedient to for conscience sake, according to truth and the practise of the church of Christ and the Scriptures. London 1660; Nayler, James; Hubberthorne, Richard: A short answer to a book called, „The Fanatick History“, published with the approbation of divers orthodox divines (so called) and dedicated to the King, by Richard Blome, against the Quakers. Which being examined and tried, is found to be a packet of old lies, many of which was seven years since presented to the little parliament, and since to other parliaments and protectors, which by us was answered and confuted in the year 1653, many other lies and false reports is gathered up since by them, which herein is answered and disproved. And herein also is a short relation of the twelve changes of governments which have been in this nation in those eight yeares, under all of which we have suffered and been persecuted for that truth, which we yet stand witnesses for, against all its opposers. London 1660; Nayler, James; Whitehead, George: The true ministers living of the gospel, distinguished from the false ministers living upon tythes and forced maintenance. With a word of reproof (preceding the distinction) to the ministers of the nation, whose kingdom is already shaken and divided against itself. London 1660; J. N.’s answer to the fanatick history as far as it relates to himselfe. O.O. 1660; Milk for babes, and meat for strong men. A feast of fat things, wine well refined on the lees. O come young men and maidens, old men and babes, and drink abundantly of the streams that run from the fountain, that you may feel a well-spring of living water in yourselves, springing up to eternal life, that as he lives (even Christ Jesus) from whence all the springs do come, so you may live also, and partake of his glory that is ascended at the right hand of the father, far above principalities and powers. Being the breathings of the spirit through his servant James Naylor, written by him in the time of the confinement of his outward man in prison, but not published till now. London 1661. London 16652. London 16683; The right way. London 1699; A collection of sundry books, epistles and papers written by James Nayler. Some of which were never before printed. With an impartial relation of the most remarkable transactions relating to his life. London 1716. Cincinnati 18292; Barclay, A(braham) R(awlinson): Letters, &c., of early Friends, illustrative of the history of the Society from nearly its origin to about the period of George Fox's decease, with documents respecting its early discipline also epistels of counsel and exhortation &c. London 1841 (Barclay, John (Hrsg.): A Select Series, Biographical, Narrative, Epistolary, and Miscellaneous. Chiefly the productions of early members of the Society of Friends. Intended to illustrate the spiritual character of the gospel of Christ, VII); Letters, &c., of early Friends. Illustrative of the history of the Society, from nearly its origin, to about the period of George Fox’s decease. With documents respecting its early discipline. Also epistles of counsel and exhortation, etc. In: Evans, William; Evans, Thomas (Hrsg.): The Friend's Library. Comprising journals, doctrinal treaties, and other writings of members of the Religious Society of Friends. XI. Philadelphia 1847, 322-449; Gervase Benson to George Fox and James Nayler. London, 29th of 9bre 1653. In: The Friend. A Religious, Literary and Miscellaneous Journal, XXXVIII, 13, 1864, 100-101; How sin is strengthened, and how it is overcome. Published in 1657, 1658, 1665, 1716, 1724, 1829, and on several other occasions without date, and now reprinted for the benefit of this generation. London 1860; A touchstone for the use of all professors, by which they may see how sin is being strengthened in them, and how it may be overcome. First published in 1657, and now reprinted for the benefit of this generation. London 1879; Letter of James Naylor to George Fox, 1660 (?). In: Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, XXVIII, 1904, 240; Library of the Religious Society of Friends, London (Hrsg.): Early Quaker writings. 1650-1750. London 1977. Microfilm, ser. 2: 1. Spiritual wickedness in heavenly places. London 1655. 2. Sinne kept out of the kingdome. London 1653. 3. A copy of a letter to some friends in Thomas Aldam, a brief discovery of a three-fold estate. London 1653. 4. Several petitions answered (with George Fox). London 1653. 5. The power and glory of the Lord. London 1653. 6. A discovery of the first wisdom. London 1653. 7. A discovery of faith. London 1653. 8. A lamentation, by one of England’s prophets (with George Fox). London 1653. 9. Saul’s errand to Damascus (with George Fox and John Lawson). London 1653. 10. Several papers, some of them given forth by George Fox, others by James Nayler. London 1653. 11. A few words occasioned. London 1654. 12. Several letters written to the saints. London 1654. 13. Truth cleared from scandals. London 1654. 14. Two epistles. London 1654. 15. A word from the Lord unto all the faithless generation (with George Fox). London 1654. 16. A word from the Lord to all the world (with George Fox). London 1654. 17. Churches gathered against Christ. London 1654. 18. A discovery of the man of sin. London 1654. 19. An answer to the book called „The Perfect Pharisee“ (with John Audland). London 1654. 20. To you that are called by the name of Baptists (with Richard Farnsworth and George Fox). London 1654. 21. All vain janglers. London 1654. 22. A true discovery of faith. 1655. 23. To thee Oliver Cromwell (with George Fox). London 1655. 24. A salutation to the seed of God. London 1655. 25. A dispute between James Nayler and the parish teachers. London 1655. 26. Satan’s design discovered. London 1655. 27. A second answer to Thomas Moore. London 1655. 28. An answer to a book called „The Quakers Catechism“. London 1655. 29. An answer to twenty eight queries. London 1655. 30. The boaster bared. London 1655. 31. A discovery of the beast. London 1655. 32. A foole answered. London 1655. 33. The royall law and convenant. London 1655. 34. The secret shooting of the wicket reproved. London 1655. 35. Something further in answer to John Jacksons book. London 1655. 36. The railer rebuked. London 1655. 37. Love to the lost. London 1656. 38. A vindication of truth. London 1656. 39. Foot yet in the snare. London 1656. 40. A publike discovery. London 1656. 41. Deceit brought to daylight. London 1656. 42. Weakness above wickedness. London 1656. 43. Wickedness weighed. London 1656. 44. The light of Christ. London 1656. 45. Antichrist in man, Christs enemy. London 1656. 46. An answer to some queries put out by one John Pendarves. London 1656 47. How sin is strengthened. London 1657. 48. The Lambs warre. London 1656. 49. A message from the spirit of truth. London 1658. 50. Behold you rulers. London 1658. 51. To all the people of the Lord. London 1659. 52. To all dearly beloved people of God. London 1659. 53. Having heard that some have wronged my words. London 1659. 54. To the life of God in all. London 1659. 55. Glory to God almighty. London 1659. 56. What the possession of the living faith is. London 1659. 57. A door opend to the imprisoned seed. London 1660. 58. A few words in answer. London 1659. 59. Give ear you gathered churches. 1660. 60. The copies of several letters which were delivered to the King. London 1660. 61. To those who were in authority. London 1660. 62. An account from the children of light (with Richard Hubberthorne). London 1660. 63. A short answer to a book called „The Fanatik History“ (with Richard Hubberthorne). London 1660. 64. The true ministers living of the Gospel (with George Withehead). London 1660. 65. Milk for babes. London 1661. 66. How the ground of temptation is in the heart. London um 1660. 67. There is a spirit that I feel. London um 1660. 68. Several papers of confessions prayer and praise. London 1659; The Dying Words of James Nayler (1660). In: Cell, Edward (Hrsg.): Daily Readings from Quaker Spirituality. Springfield 1987, 27; Nuttall, Geoffry F.: A Letter by James Nayler Appropriated to George Fox. In: The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, LV, 6, 1988, 178-179; Works. Contents: [1] The power and the glory of the Lord, shining out of the north; [2] A discovery of the first wisdom from beneath, and the second wisdom from above, [3] A few words occasioned by a paper lately printed, styled a discourse concerning Quakers. Together with A call to magistrates, ministers, lawyers and people to repentance. Wherein all men may see that the doctrine and life of those people whom the world scornfully calls Quakers, is the very doctrine and life of Christ. Written for the sake of the simple-minded ones, who are willing to follow Christ under the cross, and to deny all things to be his disciples; [4] Sin kept out of the kingdom; [5] Spiritual wickedness in heavenly places; [6] James Nayler’s answer to the Lancashire petition; [7] The condition and portion of the people of England; [8] A lamentation over the ruins of this oppressed nation; [9] Canst thou prove in all Scripture (…); [10] Several queries to be answered by Thomas Ledgard; [11] To all of the faithless generation; [12] To all of the worlds professors and people (…); [13] The baptism of Christ we own. Hrsg. von Emlyn Warren. Oxford 1995-1996; Works. Supplements 1-4. Contents: [1] An impartial account of the most remarkable transactions relating to James Nayler; [2] The persecutions of James Nayler by the priests of Westmoreland; [3] His examination for blasphemy at Appleby; [4] Thomas Ledgard’s attacks on Quakers: 1. A discourse concerning the Quakers, 2. Anti-quakerism. Hrsg. von Emlyn Warren. Oxford 1995-1996; Selections from the writings of James Nayler. Second edition. With additional excerpts and revised introduction. Hrsg. von Brian Drayton, 2001; The Works, Bd.I. Glenside 2003.

Bibliographien: Bibliotheca Britannica. Or a general index to British and foreign literature. Hrsg. von Robert Watt. II, Edinburgh 1824, 696; - Smith, Joseph: A descriptive Catalogue of Friends’ Books. Or books written by members of the Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers, from their first rise to the present time, interspersed with critical remarks, and occasional biographical notices, and including all writings by authors before joining, and those after having left the Society, whether adverse or not, as far as known. II. London 1867, 216-234.

Antinayleriana: Bradshaw, Ellis: The Quaker’s Whitest Divell Unvailed, and Their Sheeps Cloathing Pulled off, that Their Woolvish inside may be Easily Discerned. In answer to a letter subscribed Iames Naylor, a professed Quaker; - Jackson, John: Strength in Weakness, or, the Burning Bush not Consumed. Being an answer, formerly published under this title, to two letters written by James Naylor. To which is now added several other papers written since by the same hand, whereof one is intituled: The Secret Shooting of the Wicked Reproved. With a reply thereunto, as also to the rest respectively. London 1655; - Deacon, John: An Exact History of the Life of James Naylor with His Parents, Birth, Education, Profession, Actions, and Blasphemies. Also how he came first to be a Quaker, and received his commission from heaven (as he saith) when he was in the field at plow. Taken from his own mouth. With the doctrines, tenets and practises of some other of the same sect. London 1657; - Ives, Jeremiah: Innocency above Impudency. Or, the strength of righteousness exalted, above the Quakers weakness and wickedness, in a reply to a lying pamphlet, call’d „Weakness above Wickedness“, published by J. Nayler, in answer to a book, entituled „The Quakers Quaking“. By which his notorious lyes are made manifest, and the truth of the said book justified. London 1656; - Moore, Thomas: A Defence against the Poyson of Satans Designe, Cast out of his Mouth by James Nayler, in his Pretended Answer to an Antidote against the Spreading Infections of the Spirit of Antichrist. London 1656; - Deacon, John: The Grand Impostor Examined. Or, the life, tryal, and examination of James Nayler, the seduced and seducing Quaker with the manner of his riding into Bristol. London 1656; - Anonym: The Grand Design of the Fifth Monarchy-Men Discovered. Or the red lyon rouzed from his couch at White-Chappel and at Spittle-Fields, April the 9.1657. Whereunto is added the examination and exploits of James Nayler, now prisoner in Bride-Well. London 1657, - Anonym: A True Relation of the Life, Conversation, Examination, Confession, and Iust Deserved Sentence of James Naylor the Grand Quaker of England. Who for his blasphemous and abominable opinions, and practices, was whipt at a cart’s-tail, from Westminster to the Royall-Exchange in London, December the eighteenth 1656, and thereto stand in the pillory, and to have the letter B set upon his forehead, and to be burnt through the toung with a hot iron, and to be kept on prison during life, without being allowed any sustenance, but what he shall earne with his owne labor. London 1657; - Deacon, John: De groote Bedrieger ondersocht ofte Leven, ondersoek en ondervraging van James Naylor. De verleyde en verleydende Quaker. Met de Wijse van sijn Inrijdingh binnen Bristol. Na de Copye van Londen. St. Pauls Kerckhof 1657; - Anonym: Klachte der Quakers, over haren nieuwen Martelaer, James Nailor in Engelandt. O.O. 1657; - Farmer, Ralph: Sathan Inthron’d in his Chair of Pestilence. Or, quakerism in its exaltation. Being a true narrative and relation of the manner of James Nailer (that eminent Quaker’s) entrance into the city of Bristoll the 24 day of October, 1656. With one man going bare-headed before him, and two women, one on one side, another on the other side of his horse, holding the reines, and leading him. Singing, Hosannah, and Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Israel. Together with some blasphemous letters found about him, with their examinations thereupon, in this city, and other considerable passages, and observations. Whereto is added a vindication of the magistrates and inhabitants of this city, in reference to the nestling of these Quakers amongst us. With a declaration of the occasion, rise and growth of them in this city. London 1657; - Bradshaw, Ellis: The Conviction of James Naylor, and His Black Spirit, Demonstrated from His own Confessions, Lyes, Evasions and Contradictions in the Maine Points of Doctrine by Him Held forth against the Truth. In answer to a book of his called: Wickednesse Weighed. The which was written in answer to a little treatise called „The Quakers Quaking Principles Examined and Refuted“. London 1656. London 16572; - The Quakers Quaking. Or the most just and deserved punishment inflicted on the person of James Naylor for his most horrid blasphemies. Together with the confession of his associates, who were Timothy Wedlock, Thomas Symons, John Stranger, Hannah Stranger, Martha Symons, Dorcas Erbury. As also the reasons why the further punishment of the said James Naylor was suspended on Saturday, Decemb. 20 and deferred by order of Parliament untill Saturday, Decemb. 27. He remains still a prisoner to Newgate, where many of his associates do daily resort to him. To which is added, the severall damnable opinions of the said Quakers. London 1657; - A Further Narrative of the Passages of these Times in the Commonwealth of England. An act for renouncing and disanulling the pretended title of Charles Stuart, and for the taking away of the Court of Wards and Liveries, the judgement of the House of Commons (…) against James Naylor (…). With the triall of Miles Sundercombe (…). A day of publick thanksgiving for the (…) great success against the ships of the King of Spain (…). An exact relation of (…) the investiture (…) of the Lord Protector June 26. London 1657; - Grigge, William: The Quakers’ Jesus. Or, the unswadling of that child James Nailor, which a wicked toleration hath midwiv’d into the world. Discovering the principles of the Quakers in general. In a narrative of the substance of his examination, and his disciples, as it was taken from their own mouthes, in their answer before the magistrates of the city of Bristol, also, of his examination in the painted Chamber Westminster, and the management of it in Parliament, now published for the satisfaction of himsef and some Christian friends. London 1658; - Lassenius, Johann: Historische und Schrifftmässige Erörterung, der vor wenig Zeit in Engeland und Schottland entstandenen neuen Secte der Quacker, darin so wol aus allerhand hiebevor ausgegebenen Englischen Schrifften, als eigener Erfahrung und fleissiger Nachforschung, nicht allein der Quacker-Ursprung, Fortgang und Leben, klar und deutlich angezeiget, sondern auch ihre Lehre und Glauben, wie sie denselben so wol durch ihre gedruckte Schrifften als auch Mündliche Predigten darthun, sampt ihren Beweisthümern aus H. Schrifft genommen, iedermänniglich zum Abscheu einer solchen greulichen Lehre vor Augen gestellet wird. Zusampt kurtzer iedoch deutlicher Widerlegung aller deroselben Irrthümern. In XIV Capiteln abgefasset. Alles zur Ehre Gottes, und Erbauung der Christlichen Kirchen. Hamburg 1661; - Historia Fanaticorum, Oder eine vollkomne Relation und Wissenschaft von den Alten Anabaptisten und Newen Qväkern, so die Summe ist alles dessen, was von ihren mehrentheils blasphemisch opinionen, gefährlichen Pracktiken, und gottlosen Attentaten, alles Civil Guvernement, beydes in der Kirchen, und in gemeinem Weltwesen zu subvertiren, kund worden, sampt ihren tollen närrischen Spielen, lächerlichen Actionen und Gebehrden, genugsam einen nüchtern Christen-Menschen bestürtzt zu machen, welches den Tode gleichsamb und das faule stinckende Aaß der fanatischen Lehre zeigen kan, publiciret in London Anno 1660 mit der Approbation unterschiedener Englischen Theologen, nun aber dem Vaterland Preussischer Nation und besonders vertiret und ins deutsche übersetzet von Benedict Figken, Prediger an der Pfarrkirchen daselbsten, dem mit beygefüget ist zur Zugabe, was mit ezlichen Quäkern hiesigen Ortes, in Dantzig vor kurtzer Zeit passiret ist. Dantzig 1664; - Rhay, Theodore: Confusa confessio trementium seu quackerorum. Das ist: Der Quacker verwirte Glaubens-Bekäntnuß. Mit vorgesetzter Kürtze, doch denckwürdiger historischer Relation, von dieser Zitter-Geister Nahmen, Ursprung, Lehr und Fortgang. Cölln 1666; - Bolton, John: Judas His Treachery still Continued and His Rage Doth more Increase, because his Thirty Pieces Sent to the Quakers would not be Received, but was Rejected and Returned to Him again (…) and for the Love of Money, Robert Bacon is Joyned to Him. Being something in way of answer, or rather a opening of some material passages in that reviling paper called by the publisher Mr. Robert Rich his second letters. London 1670; - The Quaker Ballad. Or, an hymn of triumph and exultation for their victories at the two late great disputes by them held with the Baptists, the first in Barbican on the 9th, the second in Wheeler-street on the 16th of the eight month, 1674. To an excellent new tune called „The Zealous Atheist“. London 1674.






Lit. (Auswahl): Rich, Robert: Copies of some Few of the Papers Given into the House of Parliament in the Time of James Nayler’s Tryal there, Which Began the Fifth of December, 1656. To the speaker of the Parliament of England, these to be read. London 1656. ND London 1657. - The publick Intelligencer, Communicating the Chief Occurrence and Proceedings within the Dominions of England, Scotland, and Ireland (…). From Monday, December 15. to Monday, December 22, 1656. London 1656; - Rich, Robert; Fox, George; Tomlinson, William: A True Narrative of the Examination, Tryall, and Sufferings of James Nayler in the Cities of London and Westminster, and His Deportment under Them. With the copies of sundry petitions and other papers, delivered by severall persons to the Lord Protector, the Parliament, and many particular members thereof, in his behalf. With divers remarkable passages (relating thereto) before his journey to Bristol, whither he is now gone towards the filling up the measure of his sufferings. London 1657; - C. C.: Le véritable portrait et l’histoire de Jacques Naylor, chef des trembleurs et pretendu Messie, avec son arrest de condamnation, prononcé par le Parlement d’Angleterre. Paris 1657; - Ames, William: Die Sache Christi und seines Volks, gerechtfertiget. Oder eine Antwort zu einem Stul. Stud. Johannes Lasseni, welcher sich vermessen hat, eine lügenhafftige Historie von der newen Secte der Quaker (so genant) auß zu geben. In welcher Antwort, sie zusammen mit ihrer Lehre und Anfange, gerechtfertigt seyn, und lügenhafftige und rasende Beschultigungen entkent, und verurtheilet. Hir ist auch eine Antwort beygefüget auf einige grobe Beschultigungen, mit welcher er die Quaker verwiesen hat in der vorgemelten Historie. Nebenst noch einer andern Antwort auff etliche Beschultigungen gegen die gemelte Quaker, außgegeben in einem Buch, genandt, Neuwe Schwarmgeister Brüte, etc. Als erstlich mit dem bösen Auffruhe, durch die fünffte Monarchen Männer zu London geschehen. Zum andern, mit dem Fall von James Naylor. Und zum dritten, mit der Eytelkeit und Unsinnigkeit von Johann Glixin endlich etwas ins particulir, auff einig böß Vorgeben und falsche Beschultigung von Johann Berckendal, Welches die Früchte seyn von seinen unreinen Geist, die durch uns (zusampt seinen Früchten) verläuchnet wird. Außgegeben durch des Herrn Dienstknecht, der die Gerechtigkeit lieb hat. O.O. 1662; - Rich, Robert: Hidden Things Brought to Light, or, the Discord of the Grand Quaekers among Themselves. Discovered in some letters, papers and passages written to and from George Fox, James Nayler, and John Perrott, wherein may be seen the cause and ground of their differences, and falling out, and what manner of spirit, moved and acted each of them. A war in heaven, Michael and his angels fought against the dragon and his angels, till there place was no more found in heaven. London 1678; - An Epistle to the People Called Quakers. Emitted by Mr. Robert Rich, who arrived at London from the Barbadoes the ninth day of September, 1679, and departed this life the sixteenth of November following. London 1680; - Der LX. Falsche Messias. In: Müller, Johann Christoph: Greuel der falschen Messien, wie auch, Schatz-Kammer des Wahren Messiae Jesu Christi. Das ist: Eine ziemliche Lista der Jenigen falschen Messien, so von Anfang der Welt, biß auff diese ietzige Zeit haben können in Erfahrung gebracht werden. Dann LX. unbewegliche Gründe, dadurch bewiesen und dargethan wird, daß Jesus Christus der Rechte Messias und Erlöser menschliches Geschlechts sey. Denen Jüden zur Erkäntnis und Reue, allen rechtschaffenen Christen aber zum Trost ans Licht gegeben. O.O. 1702, 20-24; - Memoirs of the Life, Ministry, Tryal and Sufferings of that very Eminent Person, James Nailer, the Quaker’s Great Apostle. Who was try’d by the high court of Parliament for blasphemy, in the year 1656. With a faithful relation of his unparallell’d sentence, and the execution thereof upon his body, in the cities of London, Westminster and Bristol, viz. 1. Standing twice in the pillory. 2. Whipt, and received 310 lashes. 3. Bor’d through the tongue with a red hot iron. 4. Burn’d to the skull with the letter B. 5. Made to ride backward, bare-ridged, thro’ Bristol. 6. Six times whipt there. 7. And then committed to Bridewell, to hard labour. Published by an impartial hand, to prevent the abuse in Dr. Kennet’s history when published, and the gross imperfection and misrepresentations of James Nailer, in the late folio collection of trials. London 1719; - Naylor (Jacob) oder Nadler. In: Zedler, Johann Heinrich: Großes vollständiges Universal-Lexicon, Aller Wissenschafften und Künste, Welche bißhero durch menschlichen Verstand und Witz erfunden und verbessert worden, darinnen so wohl die Geographisch-Politische Beschreibung des Erd-Creyses, nach allen Monarchien, Käyserthümern, Königreichen, Fürstenthümern, Republiquen, freyen Herrschafften, Ländern, Städten, See-Häfen, Vestungen, Schlössern, Flecken, Aemtern, Klöstern, Gebürgen, Pässen, Wäldern, Meeren, Seen, Inseln, Flüssen, und Canälen, samt der natürlichen Abhandlung von dem Reich der Nature, nach allen himmlischen, lufftigen, feurigen, wässerigen und irdischen Cörperen, und allen hierinnen befindlichen Gestirnen, Planeten, Thieren, Pflantzen, Metallen, Mineralien, Saltzen und Steinen ec. Als auch eine Ausführliche Historisch-Genealogische Nachricht von den Durchlauchten und berühmtesten Geschlechtern der Welt, dem Leben und Thaten der Kayser, Könige, Churfürsten und Fürsten, grosser Helden, Staats-Minister, Kriegs-Obersten zu Wasser und zu Lande, den vornehmsten geist- und weltlichen Ritter-Orden ec. Ingleichen von allen Staats-Kriegs-Rechts-Policey und Haußhaltungs-Geschäfften des Adelichen und bürgerlichen Standes, der Kauffmannschafft, Handthierungen, Künste und Gewerbe, ihren Innungen, Zünfften und Gebräuchen, Schiffahrten, Jagden, Fischereyen, Berg-Wein-Acker-Bau und Viehzucht ec. Wie nicht weniger die völlige Vorstellung aller in den Kirchen-Geschichten berühmten Alt-Väter, Propheten, Apostel, Päbste, Cardinäle, Bischöffe, Prälaten und Gottes-Gelehrten, wie auch Concilien, Synoden, Orden, Wallfahrten, Verfolgungen der Kirchen, Märtyrer, Heiligen, Sectirer und Ketzer aller Zeiten und Länder, endlich auch ein vollkommener Inbegriff der allergelehrtesten Männer, berühmter Universitäten, Academien, Societäten und der von ihnen gemachten Entdeckungen, ferner der Mythologie, Alterthümer, Müntz-Wissenschafft, Philosophie, Mathematic, Jurisprudentz und Medicin, wie auch aller freyen und mechanischen Künste, samt der Erklärung aller darinn vorkommenden Kunst-Wörter u.s.f. enthalten ist, XXIII. Halle 1740, 1363-1364; - Besse, Joseph: A Collection of the Sufferings of the People Called Quakers, for the Testimony of a Good Conscience, from the Time of Their Being First Distinguished by that Name in the Year 1650 to the Time of the Act, Commonly Called the Act of Toleration, Granted to Protestant Dissenters in the First Year of the Reign of King William the Third and Queen Mary, in the Year 1689. Taken from original records and other authentick accounts. Bde. II. London 1753; - James Naylor. In: A Biographical History of England, from Egbert the Great to the Revolution. Consisting of characters disposed in different classes, and adapted to a methodical catalogue of engraved British heads. Intended as an essay towards reducing our biography to system, and a help to the knowledge of portraits. Interspersed with variety of anecdotes, and memoirs of a great number of persons, not to be found in any other biographical work. London 17752, 149-150; - Gurney Bevan, Joseph Gurney: The Life of James Nayler. Wherein it is attempted to include more particulars respecting him, than are to be found in any one account extant, interspersed with reflections arising from the subject. London 1800; - Nayler, James. In: Aikin, John; Morgan, Thomas; Johnston, William: General Biography. Or, lives, critical and historical, of the most eminent persons of all ages, countries, conditions, and professions, arranged according to alphabetical order. VII. London 1808, 330-333; - Hughson, David: The Life of James Nayler, a Fanatic Enthusiast, Who Profanely and Blasphemously Personated Jesus Christ, at London, Bristol, &c., &c. The examinations of him and his adherents, his punishment by order of parliament, after his riotous procedure had engaged their attention for ten days, during the year 1656, and an account of the retraction of his several errors, &c., &c. London 1814; - Life of James Nayler. In: Tuke, Henry: Biographical Notices of Members of the Society of Friends. II. York 1815, 67-92; - Nayler (James). In: Chalmers, Alexander: The General Biographical Dictionary. Containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation, particulary the British and Irish, from the earliest accounts to the present time. XXIII, London 1815. ND New York 1969, 37-40; - Aikin, M.: Memoirs of religious imposters, from the seventh to the nineteenth century. To which is added, an introductory essay, on the difference between the true spirit of prophecy, and the wild effusions propagated too often to impose and embarras the susceptive passions of the human mind. London 1823; - A Memorial of James Nayler, the Reproach and Glory of Quakerism. O.O. 1824; - Goldwin, William: From Its Commencement, to the Restauration of Charles the Second. London 1828 (History of the Commonwealth of England, IV); - Nayler (James). In: À’Beckett, William: Universal Biography. Including scriptural, classical, and mythological memoirs, together with accounts of many eminent living characters. The whole newly compiled and composed from the most recent and authentic sources. III. London 1836, 210-211; - Whittier, John Greenleaf: James Nayler. In: United States Magazine and Democratic Review, XVIII, 1846, 193-199; Ebden, J. C.: Burial-place of James Nayler. In: The Friend. A monthly Journal. IV, 39, 1846, 49; - Whittier, John: James Naylor. In: The Friend. A monthly Journal. IV, 43, 1846, 121-124; - James Naylor. In: Backhouse, Edward; Backhouse, Thomas; Mounsey, Thomas: Biographical Memoirs. Being a record of the Christian lives, experiences, and deaths of members of the Religious Society of Friends from its rise to 1653. London 1854, 50-63; - Reasons given by Gough for the down fall of James Naylor. In: The Friend. A Religious, Literary and Miscellaneous Journal, XXXI, 1857, 47; - Weingarten, Hermann: Die Revolutionskirchen Englands. Ein Beitrag zur inneren Geschichte der englischen Kirche und der Reformation. Leipzig 1868; - James Nayler. Born 1616 - died 1660. Aged forty-four years. In: Beck, W.; Wells, W. F.; Chalkley, H. G.: Biographical Catalogue, Being an Account of the Lives of Friends and Others Whose Portraits Are in the London Friends' Institute. Also descriptive notices of Friends' schools and institutions of which the gallery contains illustrations. London 1888, 459-465; - Gordon, Alexander: James Nayler. In: DNB, XIV, 1894/95. ND 1921/22, 130-133; - Dale, Bryan: James Nayler, the Mad Quaker. In: Bradforf Antiquary, New Series, II, 1905, 164-189; - Jones, Rufus: James Nayler. In: Ders.: Little Book of Selections from the Children of the Light. London 1909, 46-49; - Documents Relating to James Nayler. In: The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, X, 1913, 18-24; - Braithwaite, William: The Beginnings of Quakerism. London 1912. London 19232. ND Cambridge 1955. Cambridge 19612. ND York 1981; - Bridewell Hospital and James Nayler. In: The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, XXIII, 1926, 25-31; - Bridewell Hospital and James Nayler. In: The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, XXIII, 1/2, 1926, 25-31; XXIII, 3/4, 1926, 72- 76; - Brailsford, Mabel Richmond: A Quaker from Cromwell’s Army. James Nayler. New York 1927; - Fogelklou, Emilia: Kväkaren James Nayer, en sällsam gestalt I religionens historia. Stockholm um 1929; - Brailsford, Mabel Richmond: A Visit to the Burial Place of James Nayler. In: The Journal of the Friends Historical Society, XXVI, 1929, 42; - Brockbank, Elisabeth: Letter from Richard Hubberthorne Concerning George Fox and James Nayler. In: The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, XXVI, 1929, 11-15; XXVII, 1930, 33-36; - Fogelklou, Emilia: James Nayler. The rebel saint 1618-1660. An attempt to reconstruct the chequered life history of a singular personality from the age of the Commonwealth. London 1931; - Cadbury, Henry: Marginalia: James Nayler. In: The Journal of the Friends Historical Society, XXVIII, 1931, 67-68; - Jones, Rufus: George Fox and James Nayler. In: The Friend. A Religious and Literary Journal, LXXI, 52, 1931, 1183-1185; - Matthews, Ronald: English Messiahs. Studies of 6 English religious pretenders 1656-1927. London 1936; - Popplewell, Olive: The Lonely Road. A play in three acts based on the life of James Nayler, a seventeenth century Quaker. Malvern Wells 1941; - Boulding, Kenneth: There Is a Spirit. The Nayler sonnets. Madison 1945; - Fogelklou, Emilia: Die Stellung von James Naylor und William Penn zur Bibel. In: Der Quäker. Monatsschrift der deutschen Freunde, XXIII, 11, 1949, 173-175; - Nuttall, Geoffrey Fillingham: James Nayler. A fresh approach. London 1954 (The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, XXVI); - Trevor-Roper, Hugh Redwald: The Quakers. In: Trevor-Roper, Hugh Redwald: Historical Essays. London 1957, 221-226; - Greenwood, Omerod: James Nayler’s „Last Words“. In: The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, XLVIII, 1958, 199-203; - Jerome, Judson: Candle in the Straw. O.O. 1964; - Wilson, T. A.; Merli, F. J.: Naylor’s Case and the Dilemma of the Protectorate. In: University of Birmingham Historical Journal, X, 1965/66, 44-59; Fogelklou Norlind, Emilia: The Atonement of George Fox. Lebanon 1969 (Pendle Hill Pamphlet, CLXVI); - Frorer, Mary Longenecker: From Mediate Faith to Immediate Grace in the Spiritual Testimonies of Two Puritans and two Quakers. MA Swarthmore 1969; - Schimpf, Georg Wolfgang: Wer ist Kenneth Boulding? Gleichzeitig ein Kommentar zu einem Gedicht. In: Der Quäker. Monatsschrift der deutschen Freunde, XLV, 8, 1971, 186-187; - Brink, Andrew W.: Paradise Lost and James Nayler’s Fall. In: The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, LIII, 2, 1973, 99-112; - Bittle, William: James Nayler. A study in 17th century quakerism. Diss. Kent (Ohio) 1975; - Day, Rosemary: Immanuel Bourne. A defence of the ministerial order. In: Journal of Ecclestical History, XXVII, 1976, 101-114; - Hering, Elisabeth: Vermächtnis James Naylers. In: Der Quäker. Monatsschrift der deutschen Freunde, LI, 11, 1977, 214-215; - Marcus, Annette: „There is a Spirit“. A play of historical fiction about the early Quaker, James Nayler, his life and his searchings. Tempe 1979; - Mason, James: James Nayler and the Protectorate (Longman Case Studies in History). York 1980; - Levy, Leonard Williams: Treason against God. A history of the offense of blasphemy. New York um 1981; - Breward, Ian: Nayler, James (c.1618-1660). In: Greaves, Richard; Zaller, Robert (Hrsg.): Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century. II. Hassocks 1983, 257-258; - Bittle, William: The Trial of James Nayler and Religious Toleration in England. A new interpretation. In: Quaker History. The Bulletin of Friends Historical Association, LXXIII, 1984, 29-33; - Punshon, John: Portrait in Grey. A Short History of the Quakers. London 1984; - Nuttall, Geoffrey Fillingham: The Last of James Nayler, Robert Rich and the Church of the First Born. In: Friends’ Quarterly, LX, 1985, 527-534; - Worden, Blair: Toleration and Cromwellian Protectorate. In: Blackwell, Basil (Hrsg.): Persecution and Toleration. Oxford 1984, 199-233; - Hill, Christopher: The Experience of Defeat. Milton and some contemporaries. New York 1984; - Bittle, William: James Nayler. 1618-1660. The Quaker indicted by Parliament. York 1986; - Blunden, Andrew: James Naylor. In: Der Quäker. Monatsschrift der deutschen Freunde, LXIII, 4, 1989, 70-74; - Trevett, Christine: The Women around James Nayler, Quaker. A matter of emphasis. In: Religion (London), XX, 1990, 249-273; - Trevett, Christine: Women and Quakerism in the Seventeenth Century. Diss. York 1991. ND York 1995; - Feola-Castelucci, Maryann: „Warringe with ye worlde“. Fox’s relationship with Nayler. In: Quaker History. The Bulletin of Friends Historical Association, LXXXI, 1992, 63-72; - Nuttall, Geoffrey Fillingham: The Letters of James Nayler. In: Birkel, Michael (Hrsg.): Lamb’s War. Quaker essays to honor Hugh Barbour. Richmond 1992, 38-75; - Nimmo, Dorothy: A Testimony to the Grace of God in the Life of James Nayler 1618-1660. York um 1993; - Massey, Vera: Singular Friend. A twentieth century view of James Nayler. London, um 1995; - Moore, Rosemary: Leaders of the Primitive Quaker Movement. In: Quaker History. The Bulletin of Friends Historical Association, LXXXV, 1996, 29-44; - Damrosch, Leopold: The Sorrows of the Quaker Jesus. James Nayler and the Puritan crackdown on the free spirit. Cambridge 1996; - Happ, Jürgen: Das innere Licht und die Beziehung zwischen James Nayler and George Fox. In: Der Quäker. Monatsschrift der deutschen Freunde, LXXI, 1, 1997, 13-20; - Villani, Stefano: Un masaniello quacchero: James Nayler. In: Revista di storia e letteratura religiosa, XXXIII, 1997, 67-91; - Knarr, Gray Michael: Watchmen of England. Early Quaker theology and social protest. Diss. Kingston 1998; - Massey, Vera: The Clouded Quaker Star. James Nayler, 1618-1660. York 1999; - Moore, Rosemary: The Light in Their Consciences. Early Quakers in Britain, 1646-1666. Diss. University Park 2000; - Pick, Peter Richard: Interjections of Silence: The Poetics and Politics of Radical Protestant Writing, 1642-1660. Diss. Birmingham 2000; - Neelon, David: James Nayler in the English Civil Wars. In: Quaker Studies, VI, 1, 2001, 9-36; - Spencer, Carol: James Nayler: Antinomian or Perfectionist? In: Quaker Studies, VI, 1, 2001, 106-117; Smith, Peter: Prophecy and Respect: Nayler 350 Years on. In: Quaker Monthly, LXXXI, 5, 118-120; Boulding, Kenneth: There is a Spirit. The Nayler Sonnets. Hay un Espiritu. Los Sonetos de James Nayler. Philadelphia 2002; - Moore, Rosemary Anne: Nayler, James (also Naylor) (1618?-1660). In: Abbott, Margery Post; Chijioke, Mary Ellen; Dandelion, Pink; Oliver, John W. (Hrsg.): Historical Dictionary of the Friends (Quakers). Lanham, 2003, 192-193 (Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series, XLVI).

(Erstveröffentlichung BBKL, Bd. 20, 2002, Sp. 1069-1092)