Samstag, 21. Januar 2012

Quäkerin der Woche (4): Ann Camm

Ann (auch Anne) Newby wurde als Tochter von Richard Newby 1627 in Kendal (Westmorland) geboren. Mit dreizehn Jahren wurde sie von ihren Eltern zu ihrer Tante nach London geschickt, wo sie eine erstklassige schulische und erzieherische Ausbildung erhielt. Dort zählte sie sich zu den Puritanern. Nach sieben Jahren kehrte sie nach Kendal zurück und hielt sich nun zu den Seekern, einer temporären Inspiriertengruppe Englands.
In Kendal lernte sie John Audland (1630-1663/4) kennen, den sie 1650 heiratete. Sie hatten zwei Söhne, deren einer John genannt wurde. Im Jahre 1652 traf Ann Camm bei Sedbergh auf George Fox (1624-1691) und schloss sich der entstehenden Quäkerbewegung an. Seit 1653 dienten sie und ihr Mann unter den Quäkern als Ministers. Beide zählen zu den sog. „Valiant Sixty“, den 60 ersten bedeutendsten Quäkern, die in England für ihren Glauben einstanden, öffentlich Zeugnis ablegten und Verfolgungen zu erleiden hatten. 1654 besuchte sie gemeinsam mit Mabel Camm Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire und Oxfordshire. In Banbury und Oxford richtete sie die ersten Quäkerversammlungen ein. Sie durchreiste auch die Grafschaft Durham und wurde kurzzeitig in Aukland in Haft gehalten. Aus dem vergitterten Fenster predigte sie den Vorbeigehenden. In Banbury wurde sie mit Sarah Tims und Jane Waugh von der tobenden Menge misshandelt und fast zu Tode gesteinigt. Die Frauen wurden vom Bürgermeister John Austine 1655 wegen Blasphemie angeklagt. Bei dem Prozess wurden sie von Richard Farnworth (gest. 1666) verteidigt. Acht Monate lang wurde sie mit Waugh in einem nassen Erdloch gefangen gehalten. Ihre Freilassung durch ein Versprechen der „Besserung“, also den Verzicht öffentlichen Predigens, zu erkaufen, lehnte sie ab. Ihr Predigtamt stellte sie selbst über die Ehe und sie verließ ihren Ehemann mehrmals, um sich auf Missionsreisen zu begeben. Nach dem Tod ihres ersten Mannes ging sie 1666 eine Ehe mit Thomas Camm (1641-1707/8) aus Camsgill ein, mit dem sie eine Tochter (Mary) hatte. Von ihrer Heimatgemeinde Preston Patrick aus unternahmen sie weitere Reisen nach London und Bristol. Sie verstarb am 30. November 1705 in Newby.
Camm wird zu den wortgewaltigsten und bedeutendsten Predigerinnen der frühen Quäkerkirche gerechnet. Sie tat sich jedoch niemals künstlich hervor; wenn sie sich zu Wort meldete, war es begründet und gewichtig. Frauen, die sich zu schnell ein Urteil bildeten, bezeichnete sie als „too hasty, forward, or unseasonable in their appearing“ (Piety Promoted, III, 1721, 357). Sie war eine enge Vertraute von George Fox, dem sie bedingungslos folgte und der sie in seelsorgerlichen wie in weltlichen Angelegenheit beriet.

Werke: A true declaration of the suffering of the innocent, who is hated and persecuted without a cause. Wherein is discovered the zeale of the magistrates and people of Banbury, persecuting and imprisoning them that are sent of the Lord in love to their souls to warn them of the evill of their ways. Declared in a letter sent to William Allen, called Justice of Peace, with an answer to the false accusations charged upon the innocent. Also their proceedings laid open, and proved to be contrary to the Scriptures. London 1655; The saints' testimony finishing through sufferings. Or, the proceedings of the court against the servants of Jesus, who were called before them to be tryed at the late assizes (or sessions) held in Banbury in the county of Oxon, the 26 day of the seventh moneth, 1655. Also a relation of Margret Vivers, going to the steeple-house in Banbury (...). And a testimony against false prophets, and false doctrine, with an answer to the objection about the woman forbidden to speak in the church. And some passages about the Lords former sending of his servants (...). And who are no Jesuits, fugitives, nor vagabonds. And the manner of Richard Farnsworth imprisonment (...) with a short examination and answer (...). Also, a warning from the spirit of the Lord (in his hand-maid Anne Audland) to the persecuting priest and people, (...). And a letter of Robert Rich to the magistrates of Banbury, and to Iohn Griffith, deputy recorder (...). Likewise a letter of Tho. Curtis to the professed minister called Samuel Wells (...). And a certificate wherein is manifested the diligence that was used to know the causes of the prisoners commitments (...) (Anne Audland, Iane Waugh, Sarah Tims, and Nathaniel Weston) as wel as Robert Rich (...), with a paper relating the sufferings of the innocent. London 1655; The testimony of Ann Camm concerning John Audland her late Husband deceased. In: Camm, Thomas; Marshal, Charles: The memory of the righteous revived. Being a brief collection of the books and written epistles of John Camm and John Audland (...). Together with several testimonies relating to those two faithful labourers. Published for the service of truth and friends. London 1689, 16-17; The substance of a farewell to some Friends in England, by Anne Camm, when on her death bed. In: The Friend. A Religious and Literary Journal, XXXIX, 1865, 356.

Lit. (Auswahl): Camm, Thomas: The Admirable and Glorious Appearance of the Eternal God, in his Glorious Power, in and through a Child, of the Age of betwixt Eight and Nine Years, upon her Dying Bed, Opening her Mouth to Speak forth his Praise, and Extol his Reverent Holy Name and Power. A short relation whereof, together with her exercise throughout her sickness, is hereafter collected, or so much thereof as was by us certainly remembered. London 1684; - Camm, Thomas: A Testimony to the Fulfilling the Promise of God Relating to such Women who through the Pouring out of Gods Spirit upon Them are Become Prophetesses, Daughters, and Handmaidens. And their prophecying, teaching, preaching, and praying through the operation of the spirit of Christ, in the church proved lawfully by several plain scripture testimonies and examples, out of both the Old and New Testaments, both under the time of the law and also in the Gospel despensation, and the common objection alleged against the same from the apostle Pauls words in I Cor. 14, 34 and I Tim. 2, 12 &c. clearly answered. Recommended to the consciences of all that value the testimony of Holy Scripture. By one who hath diligently searched the Scripture, and hath had an high esteem thereof from his youth. London 1689; - Camm, Thomas; Marshal, Charles: The Memory of the Righteous Revived. Being a Brief Collection of the Books and Written Epistles of John Camm and John Audland (...). Together with several testimonies relating to those two faithful labourers. Published for the service of truth and friends. London 1689; - Ann Camm. In: Tomkins, John; Field, John: Piety Promoted. Being a collection of the dying sayings of many of the people called Quakers. With some memorials of their virtuous lives and patient sufferings. In five parts. Dublin 1721, 351-364; - Besse, Joseph: A Collection of the Sufferings of the People called Quakers, for the Testimony of a Good Conscience, from the Time of Their Being First Distinguished by that Name in the Year 1650 to the Time of the Act, Commonly Called the Act of Toleration, Granted to Protestant Dissenters in the First Year of the Reign of King William the Third and Queen Mary, in the Year 1689. Taken from original records and other authentick accounts. Bde. II. London 1753; - Anne Camm. In: Kendal, John (Hrsg.): Piety Promoted. In brief memorials, of the virtuous lives, services, and dying sayings, of some of the people called Quakers, formerly published in eight parts, by John Tomkins, and others. II. London 1789, 51-62; - Ann Camm. In: The Friend. A Religious and Literary Journal. II, 24, 189-190; - A Short account of the Life of Anne Camm, a Minister of the Gospel, in the Society of Friends. In: Evans, William; Evans, Thomas (Hrsg.): The Friend's Library. Comprising journals, doctrinal treaties, and other writings of members of the Religious Society of Friends. III. Philadelphia 1837, 473-479; - Anne Camm. In: Backhouse, Edward; Backhouse, Thomas; Mounsey, Thomas: Biographical Memoirs. Being a record of the Christian lives, experiences, and deaths of members of the Religious Society of Friends from its rise to 1653. London 1854, 219-226; - S.: Ann Camm. In: The Friend. A Religious and Literary Journal, LXXX, 49, 1907, 397; - Bickley, Augustus Charles: Camm, Anne. In: DNB, III, 1885. ND 1921/22, 755-756; - Harris, Barbara J.: Camm (or Audland), Anne. In: Greaves, Richard; Zaller, Robert (Hrsg.): Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century. I. Hassocks 1982, 120-121; - Trevett, Christine (Hrsg.): Womens Speaking Justified. And other seventeenth-century Quaker writings about women. London 1989; - Trevett, Christine: Women and Quakerism in the Seventeenth Century. Diss. York 1991; - Mack, Phyllis: Visionary Women. Ecstatic prophecy in seventeenth century England. Berkeley 1992; - Trevett, Christine: Anne Camm and the Vanishing Quaker Prophets. In: Quaker Studies, III, 2, 1998, 82-110.

(Erstveröffentlichung BBKL, Bd. 20, 2002, Sp. 287-290)