Sonntag, 4. März 2012

Quäker der Woche: Samuel Fothergill (10)

Samuel Fothergill wurde als sechster Sohn des John Fothergill und dessen Ehefrau Margaret Fothergill, geb. Hough, am 9. November 1715 in Carr End (Wensleydale, Yorkshire) geboren. Der bekannte Dr. John Fothergill aus London war sein älterer Bruder. Weitere Familienmitglieder standen in hohem öffentlichen Ansehen und waren ebenfalls philanthropisch tätig. Samuel ging in Briggflats (nahe Sedbergh) zur Schule, später in Sutton (Cheshire). Er verlebte dort eine bewegte Jugendzeit, die alles andere als fromm verlief. Weder die Einflussnahme seiner Familie noch die Ermahnungen seiner Glaubensgenossen konnten ihn davon abhalten, mit Gleichaltrigen umherzuziehen und sich dem Müßiggang hinzugeben. Wie mag er sich wohl gefühlt haben, als sein Vater, ein angesehener Quäker, sich folgendermaßen von ihm verabschiedete: „And now, my son Samuel, farewell. Farewell. I cannot say that I wish to see you again until you are reborn”?
Eine entscheidende Wende trat in seinem 21. Lebensjahr ein, aber nicht durch äußere Ermahnungen, sondern durch ein innerliches Bekehrungserlebnis. Von da an ist Samuel Fothergill als Prediger in Quäkerversammlungen tätig. Was er predigte, berührte seine Zuhörer tief, denn Fothergill sprach aus Erfahrung. Er hatte die Tiefen des Lebens durchschritten, und ihm waren viele problematische Lebenssituationen nicht fremd geblieben. Seine Ratschläge holte er sich nicht nur aus Büchern, sondern er konnte seinen Nächsten verstehen, da er sich selbst in ihm wiedererkennen konnte. Besonders achtete er darauf, seine Mitmenschen gleichwertig zu behandeln. Niemand, der an ihn herantrat, wurde wegen seiner Stellung in der Welt abgewiesen. Ob arm oder reich, Mann oder Frau, erfolgreich oder erfolglos: Fothergill war an dem Menschen selbst interessiert, nicht an seiner Erscheinung in der Welt.
1738 heiratete er Susannah Croudson (auch Crewdson 1698-1773) aus Warrington verheiratet, die als Quäkerpredigerin bekannt war. Laut des Geburtsregisters der Quäker in Lancashire sind keine Kinder aus der Ehe hervorgegangen. Zeit seines Lebens hielt er sich mit seiner Frau in Warrington auf, wo er ein gutgehendes Handelsgeschäft für Teewaren führte. Das hielt ihn nicht davon ab, zahlreiche Reisen zu unternehmen. Er besuchte Glaubensgenossen in England und Irland (1744), eine Reise führte ihn nach Schottland (1764) und eine weitere langwierige Reise von 1754 bis 1756 in die Nordamerikanischen Kolonien, wo er mit dem bekannten anglikanischen Reformprediger George Whitefield (1714-1770) zusammentraf. Beide leisteten dort Versöhnungsarbeit zwischen den Indianern und den Kolonisten. Auch in politischer Mission wurde Fothergill tätig, indem er sich in die Konflikte der Quäkerkirche um das Friedenszeugnis einschaltete. H. Wellenreuther charakterisiert ihn als „entschlossensten Verfechter quietistischer Gedanken und entschiedenen Befürworter einer strikten Anwendung der Kirchendisziplin“ (Wellenreuther, 1972, 213/214). Von 1755 bis 1760 setzte er sich für den Erhalt der Quäkergemeinschaft ein, die zahlenmäßig stark zurückgegangen war. Nach seiner Rückkehr aus den amerikanischen Kolonien lebte er wieder in Warrington, hielt sich jedoch zeitweise in London, Gracechurch, Horslydown und Westminster auf, wo er Freunden seelsorgerlich beistand. Fothergill verstarb nach langer schmerzvoller Krankheit am 15. Juni 1772 in Warrington (Lancashire) und wurde auf dem Quäkerfriedhof in Penketh (Lancashire) begraben.
In einem Nachruf wird Fothergill wie folgt beschrieben: „He was in stature tall, his person comely, in carriage grave, but not austere, in address courteous, and in judgment deliberate and candid” (A brief account, 1772, V). Seine vielen Predigten waren als Erbauungsschriften in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts äußerst beliebt, in England und den Vereinigten Staaten gab es zahlreiche Nach- und Neudrucke.

Werke: To Friends of the island of Tortola. London 1760; Remarks on an adress to the people called Quakers, and a sermon on the nature and necessity of being admitted into convenant with Christ, by baptism. Published by Matthew Pilkington, L.B. and Prebendary of Lichfield. In a letter to the author, by S. Fothergill. To which are added, a few observations, by J. Philipps. London 1761. London 17612. London 17633; Fothergill, Samuel; Raine, Jonathan; Wilson, Isaac; Rathbone, William: An epistle from the Friends who visited the Quarterly and Monthly Meetings of the Kingdom of Ireland, in the year 1762. To the National Half-Year’s Meeting for that kingdom, held in Dublin in the 11th month of that year. Dublin 1762; A reply to a pamphlet, published in two parts, by E. Owen, entituled, „The Necessity of Waterbaptism“. London 1763; Two discourses and prayer, publicly delivered on Sunday the 17th, and Tuesday the 19th days of May, 1767, at the Quakers’ Yearly Meeting, at the Fryers, in Bristol. The whole taken down in characters, by a member of the Church of England. To which is added, a preface. Bristol 1767. ND Dublin 1768. ND Philadelphia 1780. ND Philadelphia 1783. ND Salem 1792; The prayer of Agur, illustrated in a funeral discourse, and the advantages resulting from an early and stedfast piety. Preached extempore. By the author of two discourses and a prayer. Publickly delivered at the Quaker’s Yearly Meeting in Bristol. The whole taken down in characters by a member of the Church of England. Bristol 1768. ND Southwick 1773. ND Philadelphia 17842. ND Salem 1792; Fothergill, Samuel; Blakes, James (Hrsg.): The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and a divine communion. Recommended and inforced, in a sermon publicly delivered at a meeting of the people called Quakers, held in Leeds, the 26th of the sixth month, commonly called June, 1769. Carefully taken down in characters at the same time, by James Blakes, junior. London 1771. Dublin 17722. Southwick 17732. ND Philadelphia 1780. Philadelphia 17833. Philadelphia 17844. ND Salem 1792; Fothergill, Samuel; Fothergill, John: A brief account of the people called Quakers, their doctrines and discipline. Taken from a dictionary of arts and sciences, lately published at Edinburgh. Leeds 1771. London 17732. London 17733. Dublin 17764. London 17775; The substance of a few expressions delivered by Samuel Fothergill to some of his relations, when they took leave of him, previouse to their setting out for the yearly meeting in London. London 1772. ND Colchester 1772; A sermon preached at Horsley-Down: London, the 19th of the 11th month, 1769. London 1773. ND Philadelphia 1780. ND London 1781. ND Dublin 1783; Letchworth, Thomas: A brief account of the late Samuel Fothergill, an eminent minister of the gospel, and one of the people called Quakers. With some reflections, occasioned by the weighty sentences which he uttered to some of his relations, who came to visit him a little before he died. Taken from the Monthly Ledger. London 1774; Memorial. A just character of the late Samuel Fothergill, brother to the physican Dr. Fothergill. Taken from the British Magazine. To which is added, the substance of a few expressions delivered by him to some of his relations, when they took leave of him in the year 1774. London 1774; A discourse as delivered at a meeting (supposed at Canterbury) of the people called Quakers, in the year 1768. O.O. 1776; Repent and be converted. A sermon preached at a meeting of the people called Quakers. Philadelphia 1778. ND Philadelphia 1780. ND Philadelphia 1784. ND Salem 1792; The necessity and divine excellency of a life of purity and holiness. Set forth with pathetic energy, by an eminent minister of the gospel amongst the people called Quakers, in seven discourses and three prayers, and an epistle to his bretheren in religious profession in the island of Tortola. Philadelphia 1780. Philadelphia 17832. Salem 17923; Sermons. Taken down in short-hand, viz. two discourses, delivered at the Quaker`s Yearly Meeting in Bristol 1767. The prayer of Agur illustrated, in a funeral-discourse at Bristol, and a sermon preached at French-Hay. A sermon preached at Leeds. To which are added, some of the last sayings of Samuel Fothergill. A sermon preached at Horslydown, Southwark, London. Dublin 1783; Discourses delivered at several meeting houses of the people called Quakers. London 1790. London 17922. Dublin 17953. ND Philadelphia 1800. ND Wilmington 1817; Discourses delivered extempore at several meeting houses of the people called Quakers, taken down in characters by a member of the Church of England and published without the consent of the preacher or the authority of the society of which he was a member. Philadelphia 1800. Philadelphia 18002; Kendall, John: Letters on religious subjects. Bde. II. London 1802-1805; Some discourses, epistles, and letters, by the late Samuel Fothergill. To which are added, some discourses, by the late Catherine Phillips, both of the Society of Friends. London 1803; Relation of some agreeable conversation between Samuel Fothergill and Admiral Tyrill. O.O. um 1803; Letters written by the late Samuel Fothergill. Minister of the gospel among the people called Quakers. London 1803; Ten discourses delivered at several meeting houses of the people called Quakers in Great-Britain, from the year 1767 to the year 1770, inclusive. Philadelphia 1808; Eleven discourses. Delivered extempore, at several meeting-houses of the people called Quakers. Mostly taken down in characters, by a member of the Church of England. Wilmington 1817. New York 18382; A discourse delivered at the Friends’ meeting house in Leeds, 1769. Chester 1823; Letter to Samuel Fothergill by an attender of Friends’ religious meetings. O.O. um 1830; Original letter of the late Samuel Fothergill. In: Friends’ Monthly Magazine, I, 3, 1830, 110-114; Copy of a letter from Samuel Fothergill, to John Oakley Letsome, on his marriage. In: Friends' Monthly Magazine, I, 9, 1830, 636-638; Letter to Mary, the wife of Mordecais Yarnall, while he was in England on a religious visit. In: Friends Miscellany. Being a collection of essays and fragments, biographical religious epistolary, narrative and historical. Designed for the promotion of piety and virtue to preserve in remembrance the characters and views of exemplary individuals, and to rescue from oblivion those manuscripts, left by them which may be useful to survivors, II, 8, 1832, 397-399; Samuel Fothergill’s letter. To Ellen Evans, on the death of her husband, John Evans, of Gwynedd. In: Friends Miscellany. Being a collection of essays and fragments, biographical religious epistolary, narrative and historical. Designed for the promotion of piety and virtue to preserve in remembrance the characters and views of exemplary individuals, and to rescue from oblivion those manuscripts, left by them which may be useful to survivors, V, 4, 1834, 176-178; Letter from Samuel Fothergill to his niece, Mary Watson. In: Friends Miscellany. Being a collection of essays and fragments, biographical religious epistolary, narrative and historical. Designed for the promotion of piety and virtue to preserve in remembrance the characters and views of exemplary individuals, and to rescue from oblivion those manuscripts, left by them which may be useful to survivors, VI, 3, 1835, 137-140; Samuel Fothergill’s letter to John C. Lettsom, M. D., on his marriage with N. M. In: Friends Miscellany. Being a collection of essays and fragments, biographical religious epistolary, narrative and historical. Designed for the promotion of piety and virtue to preserve in remembrance the characters and views of exemplary individuals, and to rescue from oblivion those manuscripts, left by them which may be useful to survivors, VI, 6, 1835, 285-288; Samuel Fothergill’s letter. Copy of a letter from Samuel Fothergill to J. H. in answer to one from the latter respecting an application made to Friends of Leeds by Cornelius Cayley, 1771. In: Friends Miscellany. Being a collection of essays and fragments, biographical religious epistolary, narrative and historical. Designed for the promotion of piety and virtue to preserve in remembrance the characters and views of exemplary individuals, and to rescue from oblivion those manuscripts, left by them which may be useful to survivors. IX, 4, 1836, 185-188; Observations on Cornelius Cayley’s request and Samuel Fothergill’s letter. In: Friends Miscellany. Being a collection of essays and fragments, biographical religious epistolary, narrative and historical. Designed for the promotion of piety and virtue to preserve in remembrance the characters and views of exemplary individuals, and to rescue from oblivion those manuscripts, left by them which may be useful to survivors. IX, 4, 1836, 189-192; Samuel Fothergill’s letter to Susannah Hatton. In: Friends Miscellany. Being a collection of essays and fragments, biographical religious epistolary, narrative and historical. Designed for the promotion of piety and virtue to preserve in remembrance the characters and views of exemplary individuals, and to rescue from oblivion those manuscripts, left by them which may be useful to survivors. IX, 4, 1837, 166-169; Account of the life of Samuel Fothergill and extracts from his letters. In: The Friend. A Religious, Literary and Miscellaneous Journal. XIII, 1839, 101-102, 109; Original letter of Samuel Fothergill to James Wilson, dated Warrington, 11th mo. 9th, 1756. In: The Irish Friend, V, 1842, 158; Memoirs of the life and gospel labours of Samuel Fothergill, with selections from his correspondence. Also an account of the life and travels of his father, John Fothergill, and notices of some of his descendants. Hrsg. von George Crosfield. Liverpool 1843. ND New York 1844. London 18572; Admiral Tyrrell. Divine manifestations not limitated to times, places, or persons. In: Select Miscellanies, Chiefly Illustrative of the History Christian Principles and Sufferings of the Society of Friends, with Accordant Sentiments of Eminent and Pious Individuals of other Denominations, Including many Remarkable Incidents and a Variety of Information Particulary Interesting to Friends. III, 1851, 182-187; The substance of a few expressions delivered by Samuel Fothergill. A. D. 1772. In: The Friend. A Monthly Journal. XV, 174, 1857, 107-108; Gospel testimonies. Or, art thou in health, my brother? And other sermons, delivered by the eminent minister and servant of Christ Samuel Fothergill. In the year 1767 and 1768 at meetings of the people called Quakers. Newport 1887; Tönnes, Andreasen: The famine. Or, the state of the Society of Friends at the present day. With extracts from Samuel Fothergill and Sarah (Lynes) Grubb. Cardiff 1890.

Bibliographien: Smith, Joseph: A Descriptive Catalogue of Friends’ Books. Or books written by members of the Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers, from their first rise to the present time, interspersed with critical remarks, and occasional biographical notices, and including all writings by authors before joining, and those after having left the Society, whether adverse or not, as far as known. I. London 1867, 635-640.

Lit. (Auswahl): Weston, Lewis: An Appeal to the People called Quakers. On the late difference between John Fothergill and Samuel Leeds, so far as the discipline of the Society was concerned therein. London 1773. ND Woodbridge 1986 (Microfilm, The Eighteenth Century, reel 2307, 7); - Jepson, Wm.; Watson, Mary: Memorial. A just character of the late Samuel Fothergill, brother to the physican Dr. Fothergill. Taken from the British Magazine. To which is added, the substance of a few expressions delivered by him to some of his relations, when they took leave of him in the year 1774. London 1774; - Samuel Fothergill. In: Kendal, John (Hrsg.): Piety Promoted. In brief memorials, of the virtuous lives, services, and dying sayings, of some of the people called Quakers, formerly published in eight parts, by John Tomkins, and others. III. London 1789, 258-262; - Samuel, Fothergill. In: Wagstaffe, Thomas: Piety Promoted. In brief memorials of the virtuous lives, services, and dying sayings, of several of the people called Quakers. VIII. London 17962, 227-234; - Reflections. On the death of Samuel Fothergill, William Hunt, and John Woolman. In: Friends Miscellany. Being a collection of essays and fragments, biographical religious epistolary, narrative and historical. Designed for the promotion of piety and virtue to preserve in remembrance the characters and views of exemplary individuals, and to rescue from oblivion those manuscripts, left by them which may be useful to survivors. IX, 2, 1837, 94-96; - Crosfield, George: Memoirs of the Life and Gospel Labours of Samuel Fothergill, with Selections from His Correspondence. Also an account of the life and travels of his father, John Fothergill, and notices of some of his descendants. Liverpool 1843. ND New York 1844. London 18572; - Crosfield, George: Memoirs of the Life and Gospel Labours of Samuel Fothergill, with Selections from his Correspondence. Also an account of the life and travels of his father, John Fothergill, and notices of some of his descendants. In: Evans, William; Evans, Thomas (Hrsg.): The Friend's Library. Comprising journals, doctrinal treaties, and other writings of members of the Religious Society of Friends. IX. Philadelphia 1845, 83-289; - Forsythe, Davis: The Fothergills. In: Quaker Biographies. A series of sketches, chiefly biographical, concerning members of the Society of Friends, from the seventeenth century to more recent times. IV. Philadelphia 1916, 29-66; - Bickley, August Charles: Fothergill, Samuel (1715-1772). In: DNB, VII, 1886/87. ND 1921/22, 508-509; - John Fothergill, M. D., F. R. S. In: Beck, W.; Wells, W. F.; Chalkley, H. G.: Biographical Catalogue. Being an account of the lives of Friends and others whose portraits are in the London Friends' Institute. Also descriptive notices of Friends' schools and institutions of which the gallery contains illustrations. London 1888, 236-242; - Beamish, Lucia Katherine: The Quaker Understanding of the Ministerial Vocation. With Special References to the Eigteenth Century. Diss. Oxford 1965; - Wellenreuther, Hermann: Glaube und Politik in Pennsylvania 1681-1776. Die Wandlung der Obrigkeitsdoktrin und des Peace Testimony der Quäker. Diss. Köln 1972 (Kölner historische Abhandlungen, XX); - Fothergill, Richard: The Fothergills. A First History. Newcastle upon Tyne 1998; ­- Fothergill, Richard: The Fothergills. A Second History. Newcastle upon Tyne 2001; - Dandelion, Pink: Fothergill, Samuel (1715-1772). In: Abbott, Margery Post; Chijioke, Mary Ellen; Dandelion, Pink; Oliver, John W. (Hrsg.): Historical Dictionary of the Friends (Quakers). Lanham, 2003, 205 (Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series, XLVI).

(Erstveröffentlichung BBKL, Bd. 20, 2002, Sp. 525-530)