Samstag, 17. März 2012

Quäker der Woche (12): Francis Howgill


Francis Howgill, geboren 1618 in Todthorne (bei Grayrigg, Westmorland), zählt zu den wenigen ersten Quäkern, die eine Universität besucht hatten. Er hatte Theologie studiert und diente der anglikanischen Kirche als Priester. Nachdem er in seinem bisherigen Leben nur Eitelkeit, Verblendung und Hochmut erkannte, wandte er sich den Anabaptisten zu. Um 1652 stand er einer Gemeinde in der Grafschaft Yorkshire vor und predigte in Colton (Lancashire). Er war jedoch auch bei den Independenten und den Seekern anzutreffen, zu denen er zeitlebens enge Kontakte hielt. Nachdem er im Juni 1652 mit George Fox (1624-1691) zusammentraf, der auf dem Kirchhof seiner Gemeinde nahe Sedbergh predigte, schloss er sich noch 1652 der Bewegung an, die später den Namen Quäker erhalten sollte.
Bald wurde er durch den Richter Stephen Kirkby wegen öffentlichen Predigens in das Gefängnis von Appleby auf fünf Monate festgesetzt, nachdem er mit James Nayler (um 1617-1660) und John Audland (1630-1663/4) in Westmorland umhergezogen war.
Nach seiner Freilassung reiste er als Prediger unter den Quäkern im Norden Englands umher. Da ihm für den Predigtdienst kein Geld gezahlt wurde, arbeitete er als Farmer und Schneider. 1653 wirkte er in Cumberland, 1654 in Swannington (Leicestershire). Noch im gleichen Jahr unternahm er eine Missionsreise nach London, um, zusammen mit John Camm (1604-1656), den Lordprotektor Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) zum Quäkertum zu bekehren, was misslang. In London traf er im Juli des Jahres auf Anthony Pearson (1628-1666), mit dem er in dem Haus von Simon Dring in der Londoner Watling Street und dem Haus von Robert Dring in Moorfields die ersten öffentlichen Quäkerandachten zu London hielt. Innerhalb weniger Jahre wuchs die Zahl der Besucher auf bis zu 3.000, so daß fast täglich Gottesdienste der Quäker stattfanden. Es gab Wochen mit bis zu 20 Gottesdiensten über die ganze Stadt verteilt. Von 1655 bis 1656 unternahm Howgill zusammen mit Edward Burrough (um 1635-1663) eine Reise nach Irland, nachdem sie zuvor bei Margaret Fell (1614-1702), der späteren Ehefrau von George Fox, vorgesprochen hatten. Fell ermutigte sie zu dieser Reise und unterstützte sie finanziell. Anschließend hielten sich Howgill und Burrough 1657 in Schottland auf, und reisten bis 1659 in Durham, Yorkshire und Northumberland umher.
Ohne diese beiden wortgewaltigen Prediger gerieten die Londoner Quäker schnell unter den Einfluss von James Nayler, der zu Howgill und Burrough in einem eher gespannten, jedoch keineswegs feindlichem Verhältnis stand. Nach der Verurteilung Naylers 1656 versuchte Howgill vergeblich, eine Versöhnung zwischen diesem und Fox herbeizuführen. Um 1655 starb seine Frau Dorothy Howgill. Mit seiner zweiten Frau Mary hatte er mehrere Töchter, darunter die Lieblingstochter Abigail, und die Söhne Thomas und Henry. Abigail litt ebenfalls unter den Verfolgungen, weil sie ihrem Glauben nicht abschwören wollte. So wurde sie mehrmals zwischen den Jahren 1654 und 1656 in den Gefängnissen zu Lancashire und Devonshire inhaftiert.
Nachdem Howgill von Verfolgungen der Quäker auch in Deutschland gehört hatte, verfasste er im Jahre 1661 eine Mahnschrift an die deutschen Fürsten. Diese wurde als „Bauch der Morgenröthe“ in Amsterdam vertrieben und ist eine der wenigen Quäkerschriften, die bereits im siebzehnten Jahrhundert ins Deutsche übersetzt wurde. Somit ist Howgill einer der wenigen Quäker, die in das Gelehrtenlexikon des Christian Gottlieb Jöcher (1694-1758) aufgenommen wurde, wo er als „Fanaticus“ charakterisiert wurde. 1663 saß Howgill erneut im Gefängnis Appleby zu Kendal ein, da er das Schwören eines Eides verweigert hatte. Ihm wurden alle seine Besitztümer entzogen, das Bürgerrecht aberkannt und er wurde auf unbestimmte Zeit zu schwerer Gefangenschaft verurteilt. Nach fünf Jahren starb er am 20. Januar 1669 an den unmenschlichen Haftbedingungen.
Howgill wird unter die „Valiant Sixty“ gezählt, zu den 60 ersten bedeutendsten Quäkern, die in England für ihren Glauben einstanden, öffentlich Zeugnis ablegten und Verfolgungen zu erleiden hatten. Über ein Drittel dieser Quäker stammte aus Westmorland. Ganze Jahre verbrachte Howgill mit dem Schreiben, so etwa 1654, das er ganz dem Antworten auf Schmähschriften widmete. Besonders mit den Katholiken und den Puritanern führte er erbitterte Kontroversen, die in seinen Schriften zu Verdammungen und Verwünschungen ausarten konnten. Sein harscher Ton, seine militärischen Metaphern und seine Vorliebe für die Gottesstreiter des Alten Testaments sind allein durch die Tatsache, dass Howgill des öfteren vor Soldaten predigte, kaum hinreichend zu erklären. Seine Verfolgungen und seine Gefangenschaft betrachtete er als notwendig und als Zeichen seiner göttlichen Erwählung. Auch hier ließ er nicht vom Verfassen von Traktaten ab und entwarf eine „Theology of Suffering“.
Im persönlichen Umgang war er jedoch milde, freundlich, aufmerksam und hilfsbereit. Vielen Mitgefangenen predigte er oder stand ihnen seelsorgerlich bei. Viele sind durch sein Beispiel zur Quäkerbewegung gekommen und scheuten sich nicht, von weither den Weg zum Gefängnis anzutreten, um Howgills Rat und Beistand zu erlangen. Auch philanthropisch trat er hervor, indem er gemeinsam mit Burrough und Margaret Fell einen Fund „for the service of truth“ (Kendal Fund) einrichtete und verwaltete. Daraus wurden die Unkosten für Reisen, Drucke und anderes bestritten. Ohne diese Einrichtung wäre die mächtige Wirkung und Ausbreitung der Quäker im 17. Jahrhundert kaum möglich gewesen. Von Bedeutung ist seine Autobiographie „The Inheritance of Jacob Discovered“ (1656). Zu nennen ist auch Howgills Erziehungstraktat an seine Tochter Abigail, in dem zu häuslichen, pädagogischen und geschlechtsspezifischen Fragen Stellung genommen wird. So auch zum Heiraten, wo Howgill ausführt: „If thou have a desire to marry, do not thou seek a husband, but let a husband seek thee, and if thou live in God’s fear, and an honest life and vertuous, them that fear, God will seek unto thee. Let not thy affections out to every one that proffers love, but be considerate, and above all things choose one (if thou dost marry) that loves and fears the Lord, whose conversation thou knowest, and manner and course of life well, before thou give consent. Be discreet and wise” (Testament, 1676, o.S.).

Werke: Howgill, Francis; Atkinson, Christopher: The standard of the Lord lifted up against the kingdom of Satan, or an answer to a book entituled “The Quakers Shaken”, written by one John Gilpin, with the help of the priest of Kendal, wherein is discovered his life, and how the judgement of God was and is upon him. London 1653; Answers to severall queries put forth to the despised people called Quakers, by Philip Bennett, who cals himself a minister of Christ, but is found a deceiver, answered by them to whom they were directed. Also, answers to severall other subtil queries put forth by one John Reeve, who lives in the city of London, who cals himself, the last messenger and witnesse unto the true God, but is found a false witness, and a lyar, and a perverter of the right way of God. Answered by Edward Burrough, and Francis Howgill, who are witnesses unto truth against this subtil serpent-like generation. London 1654; Howgill, Francis; Burrough, Edward: The fiery darts of the divel quenched, or, something in answer to a book called, “A Second Beacon Fired”, presented to the Lord Protector, and the Parliament, and subscribed by Luke Fawne, John Rothwel, Samuel Gellibrand, Thomas Underhill, Joshua Kirton, Nathaniel Web. Wherin (sic!) their lies and slanders are made manifest against the innocent, and those books which have been published by them they call Quakers, owned and vindicated, and all the rest which is in that book disowned, and their deceite laid open, how they have perverted the truth and our words in those books which they cry out of as blasphemy, that the truth may not suffer under the reproach of the heathen. Also something in answer to a booke called “A Voice from the Word of the Lord”, by one John Griffith, against us, whom the world calls Quakers. London 1654; An answer to a paper, called, “A Petition of Thomas Ellyson, Late Shepherd of Easington in the County of Durham, to His Highness the Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and to All Emperors, Kings and Princes, through the World”. London 1654; A woe against the magistrates, priests, and people of Kendall in the county of Westmerland (sic!), pronounced from the Lord by one of his prophets. Which may warn all the persecuting cities and towns in the north (...). Also the stumbling-block removed from weak mindes, who are offended by the (...) Quakers in the northern parts of this nation. London 1654; The epistle. To all you who call your selves ministers of the gospel, and all people in all relations under what form of worship soever in England, or in all the world, who profess your selves Christians. In: Burrough, Edward: Truth defended, or, certain accusations answered. Cast upon us who are called Quakers, by the teachers of the world, and the people of this generation. With a clear discovery who are the false prophets, and when they came in, and how they may be known, and who they are that deny Christ, and that preach another gospel. And who deny the scriptures, churches, ministers, and magistrates, whereby the magistrates and people of this nation may see they justifie that which the scripture condemns, and condemns that which the holy men of God justified, and may read their example, and our example through the Scriptures. London 1654. London 16562, 1-3; Howgill, Francis; Fell, Christopher; Wooddrove, Thomas: A few words to the people of England, who have had a day of visitation, not to slight time but prize it, least ye persish. London 1655; An epistle to the church of Christ, being my bretheren who are made partakers of the riches of the love of God, in Christ Jesus in and about the city of London. O.O. 1655; Howgill, Francis; Burrough, Edward: To the camp of the Lord in England. London 1655; Howgill, Francis; Burrough, Edward: Several epistles to Friends in London. London 1655; Howgill, Francis; Burrough, Edward: We the servants and faithful witnesses, &c, 11th mo. 23 (1655). From the sergent at arms his house in Dublin. O.O. 1655; The common salvation contended for, and the faith which was once delivered to the saints. Or, an answer to a book called “A Plain Answer to Eighteen Queries” of John Whitehead, put forth by William Kays, who calls himself minister of the gospel at Stokesly, wherein he hath perverted the faith once delivered to the saints, and pleads for those things which the Scripture declares against, and so he is made manifest, not to be a minister of the everlasting Gospel, but preaches another Gospel. The queries laid down, and the substance of his answer, with a reply to his answer. By one who is a friend to all, who wait for the appearance of Jesus Christ, without sin to salvation, known to the world by the name. London 1655. London 16602; The inheritance of Jacob discovered, after his returne out of Aegypt, and the leading of the Lord to the land of promise, declared, and some information of the way thither, or, a word of exhortation to all professors in England, Scotland and Ireland (...). Also a few words of exhortation to the rulers of England, and Ireland. London 1656; This is onely to goe amongst Friends. London 1656; Howgill, Francis; Burrough, Edward: The visitation of the rebellious nation of Ireland. And a warning from the Lord proclaimed to all the inhabitants thereof, to make their peace with him before his long suffering come to an end (...). Also some particular papers, written in that nation, to severall sorts of people. 1st. A warning to the heads, and rulers, and people of Dublin. 2nd, &c., 3rd, &c. By them who are sufferes, for the seeds sake, waiting for the building of distressed Sion. London 1656; A lamentation for the scattered tribes, who are exiled into captivity, and are now minged among the heathen, and are joyned to the oppressor, and refuse to return. Presented unto all the separated congregations, under what name or form soever, in love to the lost. Shewing, the difference betwixt them that were separated by the word of faith, and them who have separated themselves, in imitation from the letter (...). By a servant of truth, and a friend to righteousness, who suffers with the seed, which is held in oppression, waiting and labouring for its return. London 1656; To all you commanders and officers of the army in Scotland, especially. And to all elsewhere. Leith 1657; Hutchins, Anthony: Caines bloudy race known by their fruits, or, a true declaration of the innocent sufferings of the servants of the living God, by the magistrates, priests and people in the city of Westchester, who lives in a profession of God, Christ, and the Scriptures, as their forefathers did, who slew the prophets, persecuted Christ and the apostles, as is declared in the Scriptures of truth (...). London 1657; The answer to R. W. his paper, wherein he vindicates the doctrine and practise of the Romane Church so called, to be the church of Christ. In: Fox, George: The papist’s strength, principles and doctrines (...) answered and confuted. Furthermore their principles and doctrines answered and confuted, as they were laid down in two or three severall papers, by R. W. (...). Also a challenge to the Pope and all his adherents (...). Also a paper to all them that fast and afflict themselves (...). Also some queries to the papists upon earth (...). London 1658, 33-47; The measuring rod of the Lord, streched forth over all nations, and the line of true judgement laid to the rulers thereof. Wherein all governours, and rulers, potentates and powers are measured, and all governments and lawes weighed in the true weight. Wherein they all may see how far they are degenerated from the law of righteousness, and the rules of wisdome, which was in the beginning, before tyranny, and persecution, and rebellion had shewed it selfe. Also shewing the end that will come upon all those rulers and governments, rulers and lawes that have been made in the apostacy, which is to overthrowne (...). Also an advertisement to all the rulers upon the earth (...). Published by the information of all rulers upon earth (...) By one who waits to see the kingdoms of the world to become the kingdomes of the Lord (...). London 1658; Some of the misteries of Gods kingdome declared, as they have been revealed by the spirit through faith. For the information of all such who have erred for lack of knowledge in their judgements, and have perished for lack of understanding, to the intent that they may for the time to come wait in that which gives the true knowledge of God, and of his kingdome, and of the mysteries thereof, which comes to be revealed through faith to the upright in heart. Also for the confirmation of such who are made partakers of the like precious faith. By one who is made partaker of the riches of his grace, and of the salvation which is in Christ Jesus revealed through the spirit. London 1658. London 16582; The heart of New-England hardened through wickednes, in answer to a book, entituled, “The Heart of New-England Rent”, published by John Norton, appointed thereunto by the General Court. The doctrine of the Quakers vindicated, his arguments made void, his ignorance manifested, and his lying doctrines brought to light, and judged with the word of truth, and truth cleared from his aspersions and slanders. London 1659. ND Microfilm Ann Arbor 1980 (American Culture Series, I, 6, 10, no. 62); Mistery Babylon, the mother of harlots discovered. Her rise, and when, with many of her sorceries. With her merchants of divers orders, and ranks, and merchandize of divers sorts this many hundred years. Also her last merchants, with their delicate merchandise discovered, in answer to a book tituled “The Directory for the Publick Worship of God through England, Scotland, and Ireland”, which now is the chief traffick her last reformed merchants trades with, in all these nations. London 1659; Darknesse and ignorance expelled by the light shining forth, and the appearance of the day. In answer to a book called, “Innocents no Saints”. Published by one Edward Dodd, wherein he hath laboured to prove tythes lawfull, and tithing priests and hirelings to be the ministers of the world, and the masse-house the church, and calls idolatry civility, and heathenish complements courtesie, and hath perverted many Scriptures. His deceit laid open, his vindication made void, and his argument confounded, and truth laid open in all these particulars, for the sake of the upright in heart, who rejoyces in truth's prosperity. By one of the Lamb’s followers, who makes warre against the head of the dragon, and against the rear of the beast. London 1659; Some false principles and errors discovered and refuted. In a short answer to a catechism-book, which is said to contain, “The Principles of Religion”, put forth by a nameless author. But is supposed to be the work of one Samuel Eaton, a professed minister of the gospel, among the sect of the Independants, in Cheshire. But upon true examination, he is found to be teaching the traditions of men, for the commandments of Christ, and his principles are proved to be not according, but contrary to the spirit of God and the Scriptures. London 1659; The popish inquisition newly erected in New-England, whereby their church is manifested to be a doughter of mysterie Babylon, which did drink the blood of the saints, who bears the express image of her mother, demonstrated by her fruits. Also, their rulers to be in the beast’s power upon whom the whore rideth, manifest, by their wicked compulsary laws against the Lamb and his followers, and their cruel and bloody practises against the dear servants of their Lord, who have deeply suffered by this hypocritical generation. Published by a lover of mercy and truth, and an enemy to envy and cruelty. London 1659; The invisible things of God brought to light by the revelation of the eternal spirit, who was an ey-witness of the wonders of the Lord in the beginning. Wherein is declared the felicity of all things in the beginning and the sad estate of all things after the transgression. How all the reformed churches, so called, in Christendom are yet in the apostacy. The estate of the true church before the apostacy, and her state in the apostacy, and the glory that shall appear after the apostacy. By one, who believes God will shine out of Sion in perfect beauty, again, after the dark night of apostacy. London 1659; The epistle to the reader. London 1659; An information, and also advice to the armie on both parts, and this present committee of safety newly erected, and to the late Parliament, and also to all people who seeks peace and righteousness, and are for the good old cause, so much talked on (...). London 1659; The works of darknesse brought to light and reproved, in answer to divers false doctrines and principles of John Wells of St. Ives (so called) in Huntington-shire. Concerning the world, and the gospel, and the way to Christ, and the tryal of spirits, and light which lighteth every man, and the ministers maintenance. His vain arguments and proofs made void, and truth manifested in all these particulars. Also some queries propounded to John Wells to answer. London 1659; The mouth of the pit stopped, and the smoke that hath arisen out of it scattered by the breath of truth, in answer to a lying story called “Hell Broken Loose, or the History of the Quakers”, published by Thomas Underhill, a seller of the whore’s merchandize, otherwise called a bookseller, his lyes returned upon him, his accusations answered, and his envie declared, and truth cleared from all his reproaches. By one that waits to see death and hell cast into the lake of fire, with the beast and the false prophet. London 1659; The deceiver of the nations discovered, and his cruelty made manifest. And how he hath deceived the nations, and wrought his works of darkness, more hiddenly under the mask of higher power, and holy church (...). More especially his cruel works of darkness laid open and reproved in Maryland in Virginia. And the sad sufferings of the servants of the Lord, there, by his cruel instruments. By a lover of mercy and truth. London 1660; One of Antichrists voluntiers defeated, and the true light vindicated. In answer to a book called “Ignis Fatuus”, published by one R. I. Wherein he vindicates Edward Dod and Samuell Smith (of the county of Salop) in their lyes, folly, and wickedness, and hath added more of his own, with divers of his false doctrines, lyes, and slanders (...) brought to light and reproved, (...). His vindication made voyd, and his weapons broken (...). London 1660; One warning more unto England before she give up the ghost, and be buried in the pit of darkness. To awaken the inhabitants thereof out of their deep sleep, to see themselves what misery is coming upon them through their degeneration and horrible ingratitude, that the people therein may be left without excuse in the day of the Lord. By him that pities thee in this languishing state. London 1660; Some openings of the womb of the morning, to all the princes of Germany and people, who professe the name of Jesus Christ in those dominions, this is sent as a free gift, in true love unto those nations, wherein the state of the true church is discovered with her foundation, and mystery Babylon and her foundation, that all may try themselves upon what foundation they are, and whether they belong to that city which is to be made desolate, or to the lambs wife which shall be married unto him for ever in everlasting righteousnesse. And the way and the entrance into the true worship in which God is well pleased is discovered unto them who are weary. By a servant of the Lord who hath viewed your state, who hath reached forth his hand of love unto you, that you may come out of the night of darkness, and behold the Lord in his marvellous light which is arisen. London 1661; Howgill, Francis; Fisher, Samuel; Hubberthorne, Richard; Crook, John: Liberty of conscience asserted, and several reasons rendred, who no outward force nor imposition, ought to be used in matters of faith and religion. With several sayings, collected from the speeches and writings of King James, and King Charles the First (...). This was delivered into the hands of the members of both Houses of Parliament, the last day of the third month, 1661. London 1661. London 16682; Einige Eröffnungen des Bauchs der Morgenröthe. An alle Deutschen Fürsten, und Völcker, die den Namen Jesu Christi in ihren Herrschafften öffentlich bekennen, ist dieses, als eine freye Gifft (sic!) gesand, in warhaffter Liebe gegen diese Nation. In welchem der Standt der wahren Kirchen, mit ihrem Fundament ist entdecket, und das Geheimniß Babylon und ihr Grund, daß alle mügen sich selbst prüfen, worauff sie gegründet stehen, und ob sie gehören zu der Stadt, welche sol verwüstet werden, oder zum Weibe des Lammes, welches sol mit ihm ewiglich in ewiger Gerechtigkeit vermählet werden. Sampt den Wege und Eingang zum wahren Gottesdienst, in welcher Gott ein Wolgefallen hat. Eröffnet für die, welche mühselig sind, daß sie mögen zur Ruhe kommen, und dasselbe zu erkennen, in welchem der Friede und die Glückseligkeit bestehet. Durch einen Knecht des Herrn, welcher euren Stand hat gesehen, Welcher seine Liebes-Hände hat außgestreckt zu euch, daß ihr müget kommen auß der Nacht der Fünsterniß, und sehen den Herrn in seinem wunderbahren Liecht, welches ist erstanden. Amsterdam 1661; The glory of the true church discovered, as it was in its purity in the primitive time, also a manifestation how and when the apostacy came, and how long it hath continued in the church of Rome, proved to be in it, because she differs in doctrine and practices from the church of Christ in the apostles dayes. Published for this end, that people may be informed, and their understanding opened to discern of the times and seasons, and see the difference between the lambs wife, and the mother of harlots. By one who desires that all may come to the knowledge of the truth and be saved, and walk in the light of the Lord. London 1661. London 16622. London 16663; The rock of ages exalted above Rome’s imagined rock, on which her church is builded. She proved not to be the onely church of Christ, her corrupt doctrines reproved not to be apostolick, but contrary to the true church of Christ in the apostles dayes. Also, divers arguments answered, which may convince the Papists, that they are not the true church, wherein a book is answered, called, “A Catechism against all Sectaries”. Newly published by C. M. in the year 1661. London 1662; Howgill, Francis; Burrough, Edward; Cook, John; Penington, Isaac: To all dear Friends and brethren in the everlasting truth and covenant of the almighty Jehovah, blessed for evermore. London 1662; Truth lifting up its head above slanders. In an answer to Thomas Jackson, late priest of Stoke in Sussex, his lying paper which he left in the north of England. Whereunto is added something by way of letter, from another hand, to the said T. J. shewing the reasons why it is judged meet to publish the same at this time (...). Likewise, a brief rehearsal of some remarkable passages out of E. B. his book called “Satan’s Design Defeated” (...), by (…) J. S. London 1663; Howgill, Francis; Whitehead, George; Coale, Josiah; Fox, George: A testimony concerning the life, death, trials, travels and labours of Edward Burroughs that worthy prophet of the Lord, who dyed a prisoner for the testimony of Jesus, and the word of God, in the city of London, the 14th of the 12th month, 1662. London 1663; A visitation of love, peace, and good will from the spirit of the Lord. Sent unto the whole flock of God, now in this their day of tryals, and hour of temptation, for the refreshing, strengthening, comforting and building of them up in their most precious holy faith, that they may be encouraged to hold fast the profession thereof through all tryals and sufferings, unto the end, that the crown immortal they may come to receive. Being two epistles, the one from F. H. and the other from A. P. London 1664; The great case of tythes and forced maintenance once more revived, the true state thereof enquired into, before the law, under the law, among the Jews, likewise under the Gospel, the true ministers of Christ, their allowance shown, likewise in the corruption of time since Christ, how tythes have been introduced, wherein antiquity is searched, and the judgement of the fathers of the church in several ages produced, besides the Scripture itself examined, in all which is clearly proved, tythes and forced maintenance, are no gospel maintenance, the scriptures answered, divers arguments confuted, and objections answered, which are brought by the ministery of this last age. Also the institution and division of parishes, and rise, all which are published for the benefit of all, who desire that gospel order might be established again in all the churches of Christ. London 1665; A general epistle to the dispersed and persecuted flock of Christ Jesus in the dominion of England and all parts and regions where this shall come who have believed in Christ the light of the world, and now suffers for his names sake. London 1665; A general epistle to all who have believed in the light of the Lord Jesus, and are called of God to follow the lamb through the great tribulation. London 1665; The true rule, judge, and guide of the true church of God discovered, and borne testimony unto what it is, and wherein it consisteth. In opposition to the pretended Catholick Church of Rome her rule, foundation, guide, and judge. Being returned in answer to Captain Robert Everrand his book, titled “An Epistle to all the Nonconformists”. Wherein his main reasons, grounds, and allegations (...) are examined and discoursed with, (...). By a suffering member of that church which fled into the wilderness, when mistery Babylon sat as a queen upon the waters. London 1665; Oaths no gospel ordinance, but prohibited by Christ. Being in answer to A. Smallwood, D. D. to his book lately published, being a sermon preached at Carlile, 1664, wherein he hath laboured to prove swearing lawful among Christians, his reasons and arguments are weighed and answered, and the doctrine of Christ vindicated against the conceptions and interpretations of men, who would make it void. By a sufferer for Christ and his doctrine. London 1666; A copy of a paper sent to John Otway, justice of the peace, concerning swearing. London 1666; The dawnings of the gospel-day, and its ligth and glory discovered. By a faithful and valiant follower of the Lamb, and labourer in the work and service of God, and a sufferer for the testimony of Jesus, who dyed a prisoner for the truth in Appleby Goal in the county of Westmerland (sic!), the twentieth day of the eleaventh moneth, one thousand six hundred sixty eight. London 1676; The unchangeable testament, and will, and counsel of Francis Howgil left to his doughter Abigail Howgil. In: The dawnings of the gospel-day, and its ligth and glory discovered. By a faithful and valiant follower of the Lamb, and labourer in the work and service of God, and a sufferer for the testimony of Jesus, who dyed a prisoner for the truth in Appleby Goal in the county of Westmerland (sic!), the twentieth day of the eleaventh moneth, one thousand six hundred sixty eight. London 1676, o.S.; Howgill, Francis; Hubberthorne, Richard; Fisher, Samuel: Persecution inconsistant with Christianity, humane society, and the honour of princes. From the testimonies of themselves, and approved authors, and martyrs, herein impartially collected. Whereto is added certain solid reasons why no outward force, nor imposition out to be used in matters of faith, &c. By those faithfull witnesses who died under suffering for the testimony of Jesus. London 1670; Backhouse, James (Hrsg.): Memoirs of Francis Howgill. With extracts from his writings. York 1828; Extracts from Francis Howgill’s Works. Bde. II. York 1828; Advice to his dougther. York 1828; Barclay, A(braham) R(awlinson): Letters, &c., of early Friends, illustrative of the history of the Society from nearly its origin to about the period of George Fox's decease, with documents respecting its early discipline also epistels of counsel and exhortation &c. London 1841 (Barclay, John (Hrsg.): A select series, biographical, narrative, epistolary, and miscellaneous. Chiefly the productions of early members of the Society of Friends. Intended to illustrate the spiritual character of the gospel of Christ, VII); Letters, &c., of early Friends. Illustrative of the history of the society, from nearly its origin, to about the period of George Fox’s decease. With documents respecting its early discipline. Also epistles of counsel and exhortation, etc. In: Evans, William; Evans, Thomas (Hrsg.): The Friend's Library. Comprising journals, doctrinal treaties, and other writings of members of the Religious Society of Friends. XI. Philadelphia 1847, 322-449; Some extracts from the testimony to the memory of Edward Burrough, written by his friend and companion, Francis Howgill. In: The Friend. A Religious, Literary and Miscellaneous Journal, XXXII, 1859, 269-270; A testimony against ecclesiastical corruptions, revised from an essay originally entitled “The Glory of the True Church Discovered”, &c., written about the year 1661. York 1860 (York Friends’ Tract Association, V); Edward Burrough and Francis Howgill to Margaret Fell. London, 29th of sixth month 1654. In: The Friend. A Religious and Literary Journal, XXXVIII, 14, 1864, 109-110; Edward Burrough and Francis Howgill to Margaret Fell. London, 27th. of first month 1655. In: The Friend. A Religious and Literary Journal, XXXVIII, 16, 1864, 124-126; Francis Howgill and Edward Burrough to Thomas Aldam. London, 19th of seventh month 1656. In: The Friend. A Religious and Literary Journal, XXXVIII, 18, 1864, 140-141; Gray Ridge. The book of Francis Howgill, written and compiled by Will Hayes, illustrated by William Manners. Kent 1942; The inheritance of Jacob discovered, after his return out of Egypt. In: Barbour, Hugh; Roberts, Arthur (Hrsg.): Early Quaker writings 1650-1700. Grand Rapids 1973, 170-171.

Bibliographien: Whiting, John: A Catalogue of Friend's Books. Written by many of the people, called Quakers, from the beginning or first appearance of the said people. London 1708, 76-78; Smith, Joseph: A Descriptive Catalogue of Friends’ Books. Or books written by members of the Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers, from their first rise to the present time, interspersed with critical remarks, and occasional biographical notices, and including all writings by authors before joining, and those after having left the Society, whether adverse or not, as far as known. I. London 1867, 479-482.

Lit. (Auswahl): Camm, John: This was the Word of the Lord Which John Camm, and Francis Howgill was Moved to Declare and Write to Oliver Cromwell, Who is Named Lord Protector. Shewing the Cause Why They Came to Speak to Him (…). London 1654; - Farmer, Ralph: The Great Mysteries of Godlinesse and Ungodlinesse. The one opened from that eternall truth of the un-erring scripture of the ever-blessed Jesus, the other discovered from the writings and speakings of a generation of deceivers, called Quakrrs (sic!). Wherein their sathanicall dephts, and diabolicall delucions, not hitherto so fully known, are laid open (...). London 1655; - Bolton, John: A Short Account of the Latter end and Dying Words of Francis Howgil (sic!), Who Dyed a Prisoner for the Testimony of Jesus. O.O. 1671; - Burrough, Edward: The Memorable Works of a Son of Thunder and Consolation. Namely, that true prophet, and faithful servant of God, and sufferer for the testimony of Jesus, Edward Burroughs, who dyed a prisoner for the word of God, in the city of London, the fourteenth of the twelfth moneth, 1662. London 1672; - Mollineux, Henry: Popery Exposed by Its Own Author, and Two Romish Champions Checked, for Their Hot and Rash Onsets and Attempts against the People Called Quakers. Being an answer to the large demands and false accusations, assertions and doctrines contained in the several manuscripts of James Watmough (…) and his abettor Matthew Hall, papists (…). And herein is also a defence of some printed books, formerly written by Francis Howgill (…) concerning which the said J. W. hath written, as is in this treatise manifested. Written in true love to all people whomsoever, by a lover of truth. London 1718; - Francis Howgill. In: Tomkins, John; Field, John: Piety Promoted. Being a collection of the dying sayings of many of the people called Quakers. With some memorials of their virtuous lives and patient sufferings. In five parts. Dublin 1721, 46-49; - De Francisco Howgill. In: Pietas Promota. Sive collectio, novissima verba multorum illus sectae qui apud Anglos vulgò Quakeri appellantur, exhibens. Inferuntur etiam pauca de eorum in evangelio laboribus, et quae ob illam causam passi fuerunt, lingua vernacula olim à diversis conscripta et edita, jam verò in usum peregrinorum et studiosae juventutis latinè reddita. Londini 1737, 14-20; - Howgill (Franciscus). In: Jöcher, Christian Gottlieb: Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, darinne die Gelehrten aller Stände sowohl männ- als weiblichen Geschlechts, welche vom Anfange der Welt bis auf ietzige Zeit gelebt, und sich der gelehrten Welt bekannt gemacht, nach ihrer Geburt, Leben, merckwürdigen Geschichten, Absterben und Schrifften aus den glaubwürdigsten Scribenten in alphabetischer Ordnung beschrieben werden. II. Leipzig 1750, 1738; - Besse, Joseph: A Collection of the Sufferings of the People Called Quakers, for the Testimony of a Good Conscience, from the Time of Their Being First Distinguished by that Name in the Year 1650 to the Time of the Act, Commonly Called the Act of Toleration, Granted to Protestant Dissenters in the First Year of the Reign of King William the Third and Queen Mary, in the Year 1689. Taken from original records and other authentick accounts. Bde. II. London 1753; - François Howgill. In: Piety Promoted. Ou la pieté promue, ou advancée. Contenant un recueil des derniéres heures de plusiers de ceux qu’on appelle les Quakers, qui veut dire les trembleurs. Avec une exhortation prefixe, tirée des ecrits de Guillaume Penn et un extrait sommaire de la preface inserée au premier livre. Londres 1770, 70-73; - Francis Howgill. In: Kendal, John (Hrsg.): Piety Promoted. In brief memorials, of the virtuous lives, services, and dying sayings, of some of the people called Quakers, formerly published in eight parts, by John Tomkins, and others. I. London 1789, 64-67; - Backhouse, James (Hrsg.): Memoirs of Francis Howgill. With extracts from his writings. York 1828; - Francis Howgill. In: Backhouse, Edward; Backhouse, Thomas; Mounsey, Thomas: Biographical Memoirs. Being a record of the Christian lives, experiences, and deaths of members of the Religious Society of Friends from its rise to 1653. London 1854, 112-124; - Weingarten, Hermann: Die Revolutionskirchen Englands. Ein Beitrag zur inneren Geschichte der englischen Kirche und der Reformation. Leipzig 1868; - Francis Howgill. In: Ferguson, Richard Saul: Early Cumberland and Westmorland Friends. A series of biographical sketches of early members of the Society of Friends in those counties. London 1871, 23-27; - Budge, Francis Anne: James Parnell and Francis Howgill. In: Dies.: Annals of Early Friends (Third Series). Philadelphia 1883, 209-234; - Bickley, Augustus Charles: Francis Howgill. In: DNB, XXVIII, 1891. ND 1921/22, 120-121; - Birch, Guthlac: Remarks on the Letter in Cypher from Francis Howgill to George Fox. In: The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, II, 4, 1905, 47-50; - Jones, Rufus: Francis Howgill. In: Ders.: Little Book of Selections from the Children of the Light. London 1909, 40-45; - Kite, Susanna: Francis Howgill and Edward Burrough. In: Quaker Biographies. A series of sketches, chiefly biographical, concerning members of the Society of Friends, from the seventeenth century to more recent times. II. Philadelphia 1912, 189-216; - Francis Howgill and Appleby Jail. In: The Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society, IX, 10, 1912, 170-171; - Francis Howgill - 1618-1668. In: The Bible School Board of the Five Years Meeting (Hrsg.): Biographies of Friends for Supplemental Work in the Bible Schools. Richmond (Indiana), um 1915, 21-24; - Taylor, Ernest: Francis Howgill of Grayrigg. A sufferer for the truth. London 1912 (Friends Ancient and Modern, VII); - Taylor, Ernest: The Valiant Sixty. London 1947; - Breward, Ian: Howgill, Francis (1618-1669). In: Greaves, Richard; Zaller, Robert (Hrsg.): Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century. II. Hassocks 1983, 117-116; - Moore, Rosemary: The Light in Their Consciences. Early Quakers in Britain, 1646-1666. Diss. University Park 2000.

(Erstveröffentlichung BBKL, Bd. 20, 2002, Sp. 778-790)